TExES ESL Supplemental Preparation
Use these terms as an extra study tool! Good luck!
Terms in this set (93)
The process of adapting to a new culture.
The members of a group are absorbed into a culture and lose characteristics of the first culture. The group is willing or forced to accept the surface and deep culture of the new culture and give up original culture.
Finding ways to adapt to and become part of the new culture while maintaining important values and customs of the original culture.
The psychological barrier that allows input to be filtered through to a language processing mechanism. A low filter has little anxiety increasing comprehension and attention.
Deciding to become like members of the new culture, to accept their surface and deep culture, and giving up the original culture.
An educational program in which two languages are used during instruction in order to: 1) continue primary language development, 2) provide instruction in content in both L1 and L2, and 3) English acquisition.
(Cummins, J. 1979-1980) Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills: Skills necessary for functioning in every day life, face-to face interactions. These skills usually take about two years to develop in most second language learners.
Refers to functions of the left and right hemispheres of the brain which affects language acquisition.
(Cummins, J. 1979-1980) Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency: The aspects of language linked to literacy and academic achievement. These skills usually take five to seven years to fully develop in second language learners.
Professor Emeritus of Linguistics, MIT. He is credited with the creation of the Theory of Generative Grammar. His naturalistic approach to the study of language affected the philosophy of language and mind through his theory of the Language Acquistion Device. His work influenced the works of Krashen and Terrell among others.
Words which have a common origin. There are 3 distinct levels. They are: True Cognate- Partial Cognate- False Cognate
The word is spelled the same, meaning the same, but pronunciation will be different according to language structure of the words such as an accent mark. Example: English- rodeo Spanish- rodeo
The word in other languages has the same origin but the spelling will differ. The meaning will be the same but the pronunciation due to the language structure will be different. Example: english- fragrance spanish- frangancia english- apple german apfel
The word in another language may have the same origin but will have different spelling and different meaning. Pronunciation will be different. Example: English- ext- to go out, leave Spanish- exito- success English- embarrassed- uncomfortable Spanish embarazada- pregnant
Learning strategies that are taught to promote independent learning and higher order thinking skills.
Language that is understood by the learner. Focuses on meaning first and uses simplified speech.
The implying or suggesting of an additional meaning for a word or phrase apart from the explicit meaning.
The shared beliefs, values , and rule governed by patterns of behavior that define a group. (Peregoy & Boyle, 2001) It includes what people know and believe, what people do, and what people make and use.
Part of culture that can be seen: Language, clothing, food, customs, and art.
Below the surface are the more meaningful and powerful aspects of culture: a. Beliefs- what we see as truth b. Norms- unwritten rules for behavior c. Values- what we hold most important
The realization of the depth of difference between home culture and the new culture; may cause frustration, anger, and depression.
Professor, University of Toronto/ is one of the world's leading authorities on bilingual education and second language acquisition. The acronyms "BICS" and "CALP" were first introduced by him in 1979-1980. The distinction of the two skills were intended to draw attention to different time periods required by the learner in the language acquisition process.
The most specific or literal meaning of a word, as opposed to its figurative senses or connotations.
A variety of a language defined by both geographical factors and social factors, such as class, religion, and ethnicity.
A continuous stretch of speech or written text, going beyond a sentence to express thought. Example: style in writing or rules of conversation.
Analyzing written or spoken language.
English Language Learner
English as a Second Language
English for speakers of Other Languages
Belief by an individual or group that their beliefs, values and customs are the only right way and the inability to see value in difference.
The input hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how the learner acquires a second language. The input hypothesis is only concerned with "acquistion," not learning. According to his hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses along the "natural order" when he/she receives a second language "input" that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence.
IPT (Idea Proficiency Test)
One of three state approved oral language proficiency tests. It may be used for identification/entry/exit and annual assessment.
Phrases that cannot be literally translated. These phrases must be explained.
Inclusion/ "Push In"
When an ESL specialist goes into the mainstream classroom in order to work with the ESL student.
Krashen, Stephen L.
University of Southern California/ is an expert in the field of linguistics especially in the theories of language acquisition and development. His theory of second language consists of 5 main hypotheses. 1. Acquisition learning hypothesis 2. monitor hypothesis 3. natural order hypothesis 4. input hypothesis 5. Affective filter hypothesis
LAS (Language Assessment Scales)
One of three state approved oral language proficiency tests. It may be used for identification/ entry/ exit and annual assessment
Primary or native language
Second language (ESL)
is our innate ability to use abstract symbols to communicate meaning. Te medium used can be speech, writing, signs. (Speech and Language are not interchangeable terms.)
Aspects of language the teacher is explicitly trying to develop that include: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
Language that is used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting ranging from formal to intimate.
Lau vs. Nichols
1974- The US Supreme Court decision which found the San Francisco Board of Education failing in the duty of providing equal access to education of Chinese speaking students. This decision mandates that states address the unique language needs of the second language learner.
Limited English Proficient
The entire stock of words belonging to a branch of knowledge or known by somebody.( one's mental list of the words in a language, including information about the meaning, grammatical function, pronunciation, etc. (A written lexicon is a list of all the words in a language; dictionary.)
A situation in which a word has two or more meanings. Example: pen-writing instrument pen- a place where pigs live
Language Proficiency Assessment Committee made up of one or more professional personnel and a parent of a LEP student participating in the program. Recommends appropriate placement of students assessed as LEP.
The smallest linguistic unit that has a meaning or grammatical function. (stem, prefix, suffix) Morphemes/ play, play+s, play+er+s, un+play+able, re+play+ed, play+ful+ly *adding morphemes changes the meaning
The study of how words are structured and how they are put together from smaller parts (morphemes). A morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has a meaning or grammatical function. (stem, prefix, suffix)
Student who does not meet the criteria to be limited in English proficiency.
Oral Language Proficiency Test. It may be used for identification/entry/exit and annual assessment.
Psychologist and researcher of learning processes in children and adults. His work is known al over the world and is still an inspiration in fields like psychology, sociology, education, epistemology, economics and law.
Smallest unit of meaningful sound.
The ability to deal explicitly with segmental sound units smaller than a syllable. Example: The sound units in D O G.
Study of sounds of the human speech.
Involves teaching children to connect sounds with letters or groups of letters. Example: (K) can be represented by C, K, or Ch spellings.
The study of how sounds are organized and used in a language. Phonology systems may differ from language to language.
The study of how the meaning conveyed by a word or sentence depends on the context in which it is used (such as time, place, social relationship between speaker and hearer, and speaker's assumption about the hearer's beliefs). Ex: He kicked a (ball) into the net for a goal. She dribbled the (ball) down the court and made a three point shot. She putted the (ball) a distance of eighteen feet. She smacked the (ball) over the left field fence for a homerun.
Unfair and unreasonable opinion formed without adequate knowledge or thought.
Classes in which students are withdrawn from the mainstream regular subject classes from one or more periods a week for English language instruction.
Concrete objects from the everyday world used during instruction to make input comprehensible.
Support the teacher provides to the student in the learning process so that the student will be able to complete the task independently.
The study of linguistic meaning. It is concerned with the meanings of words, morphemes, phrases, and sentences. Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and ways in which the meanings change and develop. Semantics includes synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, and multiple-meaning words.
overgeneralization or oversimplification of beliefs about a particular group based on hearsay or limited personal experience.
The way in which the words are constructed for meaning and how sentences are related to each other.
(Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System) Students are rated annually on their proficiency of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Every student is supposed to make adequately yearly progress by improving a level each year from beginning- to advanced high.
Federal funding to provide supplemental resources to education agencies to help ensure LEP students attain English proficiency at high levels in academic core areas.
A tonal language is one in which pitch is used to distinguish words. All languages use intonation to express emotion or other such nuances but not every language uses tone to distinguish lexical meaning.
(1896-1934) He was a Soviet development psychologist, who worked on ideas about cognitive development, particularly the relationship between language and thinking. An aspect of Vygotsky's theory is that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the Zone of Proximal Development: a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior. The range of skill that can be developed with adult guidance or peer collaboration exceeds what can be attained alone.
(Woodcock- Muñoz Literacy Survey) State approved oral language proficiency tests. It may be used for identification/entry/exit/ and annual assessment.
Texas does not use the term, but remember we ignore, cue, prompt, and redirect before we intervene with consequences when dealing with a child's behavior.
When a test question involves a culturally different learner of learners, always consider a choice that magnifies the dignity and importance of the learner's culture.
Bloom's and Higher Order Thinking Skills
Bloom's taxonomy is a must know. If in doubt, select a choice that requires a learner to exercise HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTS), a choice that requires the learner to synthesize, analyze, or evaluate. Avoid any answer choices that involve memorization, listing, or recall of any nature. if a choice allows a learner to find the answer in the book that is "look it up", it will NOT be the correct choice.
Is our innate ability to use abstract symbols to communicate meaning. The medium used can be speech, writing, signs. (Speech and language are not interchangeable terms.)
Phonemes (minimal pairs-technique used to identify phonemes)
/ship/ and /chip/ /pet/ and /pit/
Ex: "going out" - in 1970 it meant having plans for a date on a certain day - in 2000 it means dating one person exclusively
Brain is a blank slate, imitation of input from environment, habit formation by reptition, errors due to habits, contrastive analysis can predict L2 errors (L1 interferes with L2 acquisition), audiolingual methods (in classroom)
The esult of social interaction - children construct understanding in context of their activities. Early language is egocentric, brain learns when ready, progress from concrete to more abstract, from figurative to operative, exploratory, discovery learning (in classroom)
Emphasis on oral language acquisition; involves demonstrations by teacher and use of pictures, films; other visuals; stress on total immersion in L2 with no use of L1.
Based on behavioral psychology and structural linguistics; uses mimicry, memorization drills; emphasis on isolated grammar structures; use of tapes, language labs, visual aids.
TPR (Total Physical Response)
Uses body movement to accelerate language acquisition, teacher gives command and models the action: open your book; stand up; walk to the window.
Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell)
Comprehensible input, affective filter, natural order, monitor
CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley)
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach: Through carefully designed lesson plans tied to content curriculum, teachers explicitly teach learning strategies and have students apply them to instructional tasks. Plans are based on these assumptions: 1. Mentally active learners are better learners. 2. Strategies can be taught. 3. Learning strategies transfer to new tasks. 4. Academic language learning is more effective with learning strategies.
Sociocultureal/ Communicative Theory (Vygotzky)
Learning occurs within the interpersonal space of teacher-student interactions. Temporary support (scaffolding) is essential. ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT: Tasks children can complete independently, tasks children can complete when assisted by a competent teacher, tasks children cannot complete even with assistance.
Sheltered Content (Echevarria, Vogt, and Short)
SIOP- Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol, Attention to content objectives, language objectives, background knowledge, interaction, and meaningful activities.
Currently Accepted ESL Methods All Use These Basic Strategies
Visuals- pictures, realia, video; vocabulary development- attention to teaching core vocabulary; active learning- process and apply new content and skills; interaction- use multiple grouping configurations; learning strategies- help students monitor their own learning.
Meeting the needs of all learners
Students' feeling of comfort with instructional settings and activities come from both cultural and individual preferences. Use a variety of formats to meet the multiple needs of your diverse students.
Stage 1: One-way Communication
"Silent period"- learners are acquiring knowledge about the new language, including vocabulary, syntax, and content knowledge.
Stage 2: Partial Two-way Communication
The learners listen to communication and respond with either gestures or their native language. They can show comprehension without speaking by nodding, pointing, drawing, and gesturing.
Stage 3: Full Two-way Communication
Learners listen and respond effectively in the target language. Process through the stages is enhanced when the level of activity matches the learners' stage of development.
1. Graphophonic- letters/sounds & visual clues/ What would you expect to see? 2. Semantics- sense, meaning/ Does it make sense? 3. Syntax- structure, grammar/ Can we say it that way?
Approaching writing through an authentic process, similar to published authors. (rewrite, draft, revise, edit, publish)
Communicative approach led to content-based ESL instruction to prepare students for mainstream classes. Taught by ESL educators, Addresses key topics in grade-level curriculum, seeks to develop students' English proficiency through study of subject area content, and addresses academic skills
Language Proficiency Assessment Committee must be set up and trained by the district. Required Documentation: certificate of training, oath of confidentiality (parent member only), minutes of meetings
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