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18 terms

CH 26 VOCAB

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phylogeny
evolutionary history of a species or a group of related species
systematics
a discipline that focuses on classifying organisms and their evolutionary relationships - fossils, morphology, genes, molecular evidence
taxonomy
an ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities & differences
binomial nomenclature
2 part naming system - genus & species - founded by Carolus Linnaeus
hierarchical classification
general to inclusive - Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
taxon
each categorization at any level
phylogenetic tree
systematists use branching diagrams to depict hypotheses about evolutionary relationships - reflect hierarchical classifications of groups nested within more inclusive groups
homologous structures
similarities due to shared ancestry - whale flipper & tiger's paw
convergent evolution
when 2 organisms developed similarities as that adapted to similar environmental changes
analogous
no indication of relatedness, but have similar solutions to similar problems
molecular systematics
uses DNA & other molecular data to determine evolutionary relationships
cladogram
depicts patterns of shared characteristics among taxa & forms the basis of a phylogenetic tree
clade
within a tree; a group of species that includes an ancestral species & all its descendants
molecular clocks
methods used to measure the absolute time of evolutionary change based on the observation that some genes & other regions of the genome appear to evolve at constant rates
three - domains
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya - 2 distinct lineages of prokaryotes
Bacteria
circular chromosome
Archaea
introns, histone proteins associated with DNA, circular chromosome
Eukarya
nuclear envelope, membrane-enclosed organelles, introns, histone proteins associated with DNA