what are automatic and controlled processes? what are the characteristics of each?
Automatic: rely on this when we are not motivated to think (unintentional, unconscious, involuntary, effortless)
Controlled: rely on this when we are motivated to think (intentional, conscious, voluntary, effortful)
what is the three-step process of stereotype usage? is each stage automatic or controlled?
1. categorization (automatic)
2. stereotype activation (automatic)
3. stereotype application (both automatic and controlled)
identify and describe three of the five factors that affect categorization.
1. basic category membership (race, age)
2. targets that fit into multiple categories
3. prototypicality (extent to which target fits the essential characteristics)
4. situational factors (motivation to be accurate makes people more likely to use subcategories
5. prejudice against groups (if a person fits in two categories, we choose one we don't like)
describe the Macrae (95) research about people who could be categorized in multiple ways.
people viewed a videotape of an Asian-American woman
-experimentally manipulate what she's doing (IV: Prime)
-1/3 watched her putting on lipstick (female prime); 1/3 watched her eating with chopsticks (Asian prime); 1/3 control condition (no video)
-people then complete a Lexical Decision Task where they make a word/nonword judgments
-some words are stereotypic of women (emotional, romantic, etc); some are stereotypic of Asian-Americans (trustworthy, gracious, calm)
-reaction times on lexical decision task to assess activation and inhibition (DV); faster reaction times indicate more activation and slower times indicate inhibition
what are the three factors that affect automatic stereotype activation?
1. same things as categorization (prototypically, solo status, prejudice of perceiver)
2. context (situational)
3. cognitive load
describe one of the two studies from Gilbert & Hixon
• IV 1: people put under cognitive load or not
• Then people watch a video to do a word completion task (W_SH)
• Complete words like "s_ort" and "ri_e"
• IV 2: the person turning cards is Asian or White
• DV: number of stereotypic word completions
• People showed decreased activation of stereotypes under cognitive load
what are the four goals that motivate stereotype activation?
1. comprehension (a need to understand why events happen; stereotyping as information)
2. self-enhancement (desire to see self in positive manner)
3. social adjustment (waffle bitch)
4. motivation to control prejudice
what are causal uncertainty, need for cognition, and need for closure?
Causal Uncertainty: need to understand how people and the world operate
Need for Cognition: enjoyment of thinking
Need for Closure: need for definitive answers and dislike of ambiguity (more use of stereotypes)
describe one of the Sinclair and Kunda studies about how motivation can affect stereotype activation and application.
• Sinclair & Kunda (2000): studied competing stereotypes about women
o Women are less competent than men
o Women are more warm than men
• Participants were asked to report their grades and make ratings of previous semester's professors (naturalistic)
o When people got a high grade from a male professor, rated him around C
o Women were rated higher when giving the same grade
o When getting a low grade, rated a male professor slightly lower
o When getting a low grade, female professors were rated much lower