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Microbiology Metabolism

metabolism glycolisis, respiration, fermentation organism list and definitions
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fermentation
ATP is generated by substrate level phosphorylation
RubisCO
enzyme that fixes carbon dioxide
atpase
driven by protons to phosphorylate ADP
carbon dioxide
molecule that pyruvate is fully oxidized to
oxygenic
photosynthetic electron transport the generates oxygen
chemoorganotroph
uses organic molecule as an electron source
anaerobic
nitrate or sulfate are possible electron acceptors (anything except oxygen)
gluconegenesis
glucose made from a noncarbohydrate carbon sorce
antenna
pigments such as carotenoids
heterotroph
organic molecule as its carbon source
chemiosmosis
use of ATPase to generate ATP
anoxygenic
photosynthetic electron transport that uses inorganic molecules as electron source
glycolysis
process that converts glucose to pyruvate
electron transport
generates a proton motive force
chemolithotroph
uses inorganic molecules as an electron source
autotroph
carbon dioxide is its carbon source
citric acid cycle
the cycle that oxidizes pyruvate
aerobic
oxygen is used as the terminal electron acceptor
chlorophyll
used by oxygenic phototrophs
bacteriochlorophyll
used by anoxygenic phototrophs
phototroph
uses light as an energy source
nucleotides
uridylate and inosinic acid are precursors for the biosynthesis of these
cytochrome
electon carriers with a single iron atom in the center of a large protein
quinone
non-protein electron carrier that also pushes protons outside the membrane
syntrophomonans
ferment butyrate to acetate for energy (syntroph - cooperative relationship with organism to degrade a compoud
streptococcus
homolactic fermentation
lactococcus
homolactic fermentation
leuconostoc
heterolactic fermentation
oscillatoria limnetica
oxygenic photosynthesis (but in presence of hydrogen sulfide will perform anoxygenic)
synechocysits and chlorella
used to study oxygenic photosynthesis (chloroplasts)
propionibacterium
propionic acid fermentation (propionibacterium acnes - causes acne)
trichomoans
anaerobic eukaryote flagellated protozoan with hydrogenosomes to oxidize pyruvate to generate ATP (substrate level)
panacoccus deritrificans
gram negative oxidize hydrogen
makinoella tosaesis
has lots of chloroplasts (green alga)
chlorobactulum tepidum
green sulfur bacteria chlorosome (use sulfur)
cholorflexus
green non-sulfur baacteria (chlorosomes)
chlamdomonas
green alga absorb high and low wavelengths
rhodopseudomonas
red alga absorbs different high and low wavelengths that green alga
chlorobium
used reduced sulfur compounds, deposit sulfur granules externally; contain chlorosomes
chromatium
purple sulfur bacteria
anoxygenic
bacteriochlorophyll
anaerobic
rhodobacter capsulatus
used to study anoxygenic photosynthesis
anabolic
A process in which large molecules are built from small molecules using energy
catabolic
breaking down molecules to gain energy
REDOX reaction
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
Oil Rig.
oxidation
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
reduction
any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen) GAINING ELECTRONS
electron donor
reducing agent
electron acceptor
a substance that can accept electrons from an electron donor, becoming reduced in the process
NAD+/NADH
an organic molecule that serves as an electron carrier by being oxidized (losing electrons) to NAD+ and reduced (gaining electrons) to NADH
Adenosine Triphosphate
ATP, The molecule that stores energy that can be used by the cell
phosphoanhydride bond
A high energy bond between two phosphate groups.
Acetyl CoA
Acetyl coenzyme A; the entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
Thioester bond
are compounds with the functional group C-S-CO-C. They are the product of esterification between a carboxylic acid and a thiol. Thioesters are widespread in biochemistry, the best known derivative being acetyl-CoA.
Glycogen
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
Poly-B-hydroxybutyrate
(PHB) a common storage material of prokaryotic cells consisting of a polymer of b-hydroxybutyrate or another b-alkanoic acid or mixtures of b-alkanoic acids.
organic compound
A compound that contains carbon
inorganic compound
any compound that does not contain carbon
substrate-level phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
oxidative phosphorylation
an enzymatic process in cell metabolism that synthesizes ATP from ADP
glycolysis
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
glucose
a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms
pyruvate
Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as end products of glycolysis
syntrophy
refers to the process in which two or more bacteria break down a substrate which, individually,the bacteria could not do alone.
homofermentative
Lactic acid bacteria that carry out simple fermentation; lactic acid is only product
lactic acid
Produced in muscle cells from the reduction of pyruvate (under anaerobic conditions) to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue. A rise in lactic acid usually accompanies an increase in physical activity.
methanogen
archaebacteria found in anaerobic environments such as animal intestinal tracts or sediments or sewage and capable of producing methane
heterofermentative
Lactic acid bacteria that produce more than one product --> ethanol and carbon dioxide, as well as lactic acid.
mixed acid fermentation
E. coli, when bacteria ferment pyruvate to many different acids at the same time
butanediol fermentation
produces butanediol and carbon dioxide; involved in the Voges Proskauer test using the biproduct acetoin
hydrogenosomes
is a membrane-bound organelle of ciliates, trichomonads and fungi which produces molecular hydrogen and ATP. This organelle is thought to have most likely evolved from mitochondria.
respiration
the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules
citric acid cycle
in cellular respiration, series of chemical reactions that break down glucose and produce ATP; energizes electron carriers that pass the energized electrons on to the electron transport chain
electron transport system (chain)
A sequence of proteins (cytochromes) embedded in the inner membrane that surrounds a pigment complex.
electron carrier
A molecule that shuttles electrons (e-) within a cell EX: NADH and FADH2
NADH dehydrogenase
the first of the proteins in the electron transport chain to recieve the electrons; complex. membrane-embedded enzyme
Flavoprotein
Protein containing a flavin mononucleotide prosthetic group, is the first acceptor for NADH's electrons
Iron-sulfur protein
one of a family of proteins with both iron and sulfur tightly bound; passes the electrons to a compound called ubiquinone
cytochrome
an iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts
quinone
Small, lipid-soluble, mobile electron carrier molecule found in the respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains.
expel protons to proton motive force
proton motive force
The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
stored inbetween membranes
oxidative phosphorylation
an enzymatic process in cell metabolism that synthesizes ATP from ADP
photosynthesis
synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)
phototroph
an organism that gets its energy from sunlight
chlorosome
organelles found in green sulfur bacteria that act as light funnels that collect the relatively few photons in the water and store the light energy in food molecules
pigments
Colored chemical compounds that absorb light
reaction center
The chlorophyll a molecule and the primary electron acceptor in a photosystem; they trigger the light reactions of photosynthesis. The chlorophyll donates an electron, excited by light energy, to the primary electron acceptor, which passes an electron to an electron transport chain.
carotenoids
An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
phycobillins
a type of accessory pigment unique only to cyanobacteria and red algae
oxygenic
Chlorella (eukaryotic green alga)
Synechocystis (prokaryotic cyanobacteria)
Non-cyclic photophosphorylation
Cyclic photophosphorylation
anoxygenic
Rhodobacter capsulatis (purple nonsulfur Proteobacteria)
Cyclic photophosphorylation
autotroph
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
Calvin-Benson cycle
Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis cyclic pathway that forms glucose from CO2
Alternate pathways
Reverse citric acid pathway
Chlorobium (green sulfur Bacteria)
Aquifex (Bacteria hyperthermophile)
Hydroxypropionate pathway
Chloroflexus (green sulfur Bacteria, anoxygenic phototroph)
Sulfolobus (Archaea, Crenarcheaota)
Acetyl-CoA pathway
Acetogen
Treponema primitia (spirochete Bacteria)
Acetogenesis
heterotoph
organisms that obtains energy from the food it consumes (consumer)
mixotroph
An organism that is capable of both photosynthesis and heterotrophy.
hexose
a monosaccharide that contains six carbon atoms per molecule
gluconeogenesis
The formation of glycogen, a glucose storing compound, from fatty acids and proteins rather than carbohydrates.
pentose
any monosaccharide sugar containing five atoms of carbon per molecule
activated glucose
condensation of a sugar molecule like glucose with a nucleotide
uridine-5'-diphosphate (UDP) for activation of glucose
inosinic acid
the first nucleotide formed during the synthesis of purine
uridylate
product of biosynthesis pathway - converted to pyrimidine
acyl carrier protein
A small protein involved in fatty acid biosynthesis; it holds the growing fatty acid as it is being synthesized and releases it once it has reched its final length.