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metabolism glycolisis, respiration, fermentation organism list and definitions


ATP is generated by substrate level phosphorylation


enzyme that fixes carbon dioxide


driven by protons to phosphorylate ADP

carbon dioxide

molecule that pyruvate is fully oxidized to


photosynthetic electron transport the generates oxygen


uses organic molecule as an electron source


nitrate or sulfate are possible electron acceptors (anything except oxygen)


glucose made from a noncarbohydrate carbon sorce


pigments such as carotenoids


organic molecule as its carbon source


use of ATPase to generate ATP


photosynthetic electron transport that uses inorganic molecules as electron source


process that converts glucose to pyruvate

electron transport

generates a proton motive force


uses inorganic molecules as an electron source


carbon dioxide is its carbon source

citric acid cycle

the cycle that oxidizes pyruvate


oxygen is used as the terminal electron acceptor


used by oxygenic phototrophs


used by anoxygenic phototrophs


uses light as an energy source


uridylate and inosinic acid are precursors for the biosynthesis of these


electon carriers with a single iron atom in the center of a large protein


non-protein electron carrier that also pushes protons outside the membrane


ferment butyrate to acetate for energy (syntroph - cooperative relationship with organism to degrade a compoud


homolactic fermentation


homolactic fermentation


heterolactic fermentation

oscillatoria limnetica

oxygenic photosynthesis (but in presence of hydrogen sulfide will perform anoxygenic)

synechocysits and chlorella

used to study oxygenic photosynthesis (chloroplasts)


propionic acid fermentation (propionibacterium acnes - causes acne)


anaerobic eukaryote flagellated protozoan with hydrogenosomes to oxidize pyruvate to generate ATP (substrate level)

panacoccus deritrificans

gram negative oxidize hydrogen

makinoella tosaesis

has lots of chloroplasts (green alga)

chlorobactulum tepidum

green sulfur bacteria chlorosome (use sulfur)


green non-sulfur baacteria (chlorosomes)


green alga absorb high and low wavelengths


red alga absorbs different high and low wavelengths that green alga


used reduced sulfur compounds, deposit sulfur granules externally; contain chlorosomes


purple sulfur bacteria

rhodobacter capsulatus

used to study anoxygenic photosynthesis


A process in which large molecules are built from small molecules using energy


breaking down molecules to gain energy

REDOX reaction

A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
Oil Rig.


The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.


any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen) GAINING ELECTRONS

electron donor

reducing agent

electron acceptor

a substance that can accept electrons from an electron donor, becoming reduced in the process


an organic molecule that serves as an electron carrier by being oxidized (losing electrons) to NAD+ and reduced (gaining electrons) to NADH

Adenosine Triphosphate

ATP, The molecule that stores energy that can be used by the cell

phosphoanhydride bond

A high energy bond between two phosphate groups.

Acetyl CoA

Acetyl coenzyme A; the entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.

Thioester bond

are compounds with the functional group C-S-CO-C. They are the product of esterification between a carboxylic acid and a thiol. Thioesters are widespread in biochemistry, the best known derivative being acetyl-CoA.


An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.


(PHB) a common storage material of prokaryotic cells consisting of a polymer of b-hydroxybutyrate or another b-alkanoic acid or mixtures of b-alkanoic acids.

organic compound

A compound that contains carbon

inorganic compound

any compound that does not contain carbon

substrate-level phosphorylation

The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.

oxidative phosphorylation

an enzymatic process in cell metabolism that synthesizes ATP from ADP


a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP


a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms


Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as end products of glycolysis


refers to the process in which two or more bacteria break down a substrate which, individually,the bacteria could not do alone.


Lactic acid bacteria that carry out simple fermentation; lactic acid is only product

lactic acid

Produced in muscle cells from the reduction of pyruvate (under anaerobic conditions) to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue. A rise in lactic acid usually accompanies an increase in physical activity.


archaebacteria found in anaerobic environments such as animal intestinal tracts or sediments or sewage and capable of producing methane


Lactic acid bacteria that produce more than one product --> ethanol and carbon dioxide, as well as lactic acid.

mixed acid fermentation

E. coli, when bacteria ferment pyruvate to many different acids at the same time

butanediol fermentation

produces butanediol and carbon dioxide; involved in the Voges Proskauer test using the biproduct acetoin


is a membrane-bound organelle of ciliates, trichomonads and fungi which produces molecular hydrogen and ATP. This organelle is thought to have most likely evolved from mitochondria.


the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules

citric acid cycle

in cellular respiration, series of chemical reactions that break down glucose and produce ATP; energizes electron carriers that pass the energized electrons on to the electron transport chain

electron transport system (chain)

A sequence of proteins (cytochromes) embedded in the inner membrane that surrounds a pigment complex.

electron carrier

A molecule that shuttles electrons (e-) within a cell EX: NADH and FADH2

NADH dehydrogenase

the first of the proteins in the electron transport chain to recieve the electrons; complex. membrane-embedded enzyme


Protein containing a flavin mononucleotide prosthetic group, is the first acceptor for NADH's electrons

Iron-sulfur protein

one of a family of proteins with both iron and sulfur tightly bound; passes the electrons to a compound called ubiquinone


an iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts


Small, lipid-soluble, mobile electron carrier molecule found in the respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains.
expel protons to proton motive force

proton motive force

The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
stored inbetween membranes

oxidative phosphorylation

an enzymatic process in cell metabolism that synthesizes ATP from ADP


synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)


an organism that gets its energy from sunlight


organelles found in green sulfur bacteria that act as light funnels that collect the relatively few photons in the water and store the light energy in food molecules


Colored chemical compounds that absorb light

reaction center

The chlorophyll a molecule and the primary electron acceptor in a photosystem; they trigger the light reactions of photosynthesis. The chlorophyll donates an electron, excited by light energy, to the primary electron acceptor, which passes an electron to an electron transport chain.


An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.


a type of accessory pigment unique only to cyanobacteria and red algae


Chlorella (eukaryotic green alga)
Synechocystis (prokaryotic cyanobacteria)
Non-cyclic photophosphorylation
Cyclic photophosphorylation


Rhodobacter capsulatis (purple nonsulfur Proteobacteria)
Cyclic photophosphorylation


organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer

Calvin-Benson cycle

Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis cyclic pathway that forms glucose from CO2

Alternate pathways

Reverse citric acid pathway
Chlorobium (green sulfur Bacteria)
Aquifex (Bacteria hyperthermophile)
Hydroxypropionate pathway
Chloroflexus (green sulfur Bacteria, anoxygenic phototroph)
Sulfolobus (Archaea, Crenarcheaota)
Acetyl-CoA pathway
Treponema primitia (spirochete Bacteria)


organisms that obtains energy from the food it consumes (consumer)


An organism that is capable of both photosynthesis and heterotrophy.


a monosaccharide that contains six carbon atoms per molecule


The formation of glycogen, a glucose storing compound, from fatty acids and proteins rather than carbohydrates.


any monosaccharide sugar containing five atoms of carbon per molecule

activated glucose

condensation of a sugar molecule like glucose with a nucleotide
uridine-5'-diphosphate (UDP) for activation of glucose

inosinic acid

the first nucleotide formed during the synthesis of purine


product of biosynthesis pathway - converted to pyrimidine

acyl carrier protein

A small protein involved in fatty acid biosynthesis; it holds the growing fatty acid as it is being synthesized and releases it once it has reched its final length.

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