Missouri EOC Study Guide

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What form of government holds absolute power?
Totalitarian
What form of government controlled by a King or Queen?
Monarchy
What form of government rules in a small group?
Oligarchy
What form of government is when god or deity is the supreme ruler?
Theocracy
What is a Representative Democracy?
Small group of people chosen by the people to act as their representatives.
What is a Direct Democracy?
A form of government where a will of the people is translated into public policy directly by the people themselves.
What is a Republic?
Form of government where sovereign power is held by those eligible to vote.
Whats the difference between Presidential and Parliamentary Government?
Presidential
- Separation of powers between executive and legislative branches
- Both are coequal and independent of one another
Parliamentary
- Executive is made up of the prime minster or premiere and that official's cabinet
- Prime minister and cabinet are members of the legislative branch
- Prime minister leader of majority party, but subject to direct control of parliament
- Prime minster and cabinet only stay in office as long as they have the support of the majority of the parliament
What is popular sovereignty?
- The people are the source of government power
- Established with the words " We the People" in the Preamble of the Constitution
What is the Judicial Review?
The power of the Supreme Court to rule an act of the Legislative or Executive branches to be unconstitutional
Series of essays written attempting to convince the states to ratify the Constitution.
Federalist Papers
What is it called when citizens are eligible to vote and active participants in elections?
Voting
What is participation in Jury?
Where all citizens are eligible to get called to serve on a jury
What is the Mayflower Compact?
- First governing document of the Plymouth Colony
- Was a social contract created to ensure survival of these early colonist
What is Federalism?
Division of powers between National, State, and Local Governments
Whats the purpose of law?
The rule of law requires that people should be governed by accepted rules, rather than by the arbitrary decisions of rulers. These rules should be general and abstract, known and certain, and apply equally to all people.
What is the function of the Legislative Branch?
- Can override presidents veto
- Approve treaties
- Can impeach and remove President and other high officials
- Prints and coins money
- Raises and supports the armed forces
- Can declare War
- Regulates foreign and interstate trade
What is the function of the Executive Branch?
- Proposes laws
- Can veto laws
- Negotiate foreign treaties
- Serves as commander and chief of the armed forces
- Appoint federal judges, ambassadors, and other high officials
- Can grant pardons to federal offenders
What is the function of the Judicial Branch?
- Can declare laws unconstitutional
- Can declare executive actions unconstitutional
Whats the role and function of interest groups?
To influence public policy
- use of propaganda
- influence outcome of elections through PAC donations
- Lobbying--> working within the government process to influence the public policy decisions of the government
Laissez-Faire?
In a true free market economic system, the government is completely hands off
What are the roles and functions of political parties?
To nominate candidates to win elections and control the government
Liberal Construction VS Limited Government?
- Liberal Constructionists argue for increased powers of the federal government for the betterment of society
- Limited Government--> the government is power is not absolute
What is the Monetary Policy?
- Federal Reserve Bank is the central bank of the United States power to create a national bank was recognized as an implied power in the McCulloch VS Maryland case
- set interest rates
- determine money supply
What is the role of government in a market economy?
- Defining and protecting property rights
- Maintaining competition
- Promote goals such as full unemployment
- Stable prices
- Growth
- Justice
Mapp VS Ohio?
- Dollree Mapp had here home illegally searched without a warrant- Police suspected she was harboring a bombing suspect
- Police found illegal pornographic materials in her home and arrested her
- The Supreme Court ruled that anything seized during an illegal search could not be used in court
What is the Fiscal Policy?
Taxation and Spending
New Jersey VS T.L.O.?
T.L.O. was a high school student accused of smoking at school- she denied it
Principal searches her purse finds the evidence
She cited a violation of the 4th amendment- illegal search and seizure
Supreme court defended schools action
How did the Declaration of Independence influence on the US Constitution?
- Established natural rights
- Established the concept of popular sovereignty
- Need for limited government
- Need for separation of powers
- Need for checks and balances
- Provide justification for revolution against an unjust government
How did the Articles of Confederation influence on US Constitution?
Influenced concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances
What is the Magna Carta?
English document which established the following rights:
- Limited government
- Rule of law
- Right to trial by jury
- Due process of law
- Protected against arbitrary taking of like, liberty, and property
John Locke
Men are born free and equal
Thomas Hobbes
In state of nature man is born free
Jean Jaques Rousseau
- Mutual contract
- People agree to be ruled only so that their rights, property, and happiness be protected by their rulers
- Once rulers break the contract the people are free to choose another set of rulers
Baron De Montesquieu
- Need for separation of powers
- Importance of a fair and objective judicial branch of government
What is a limited government?
- Basic principle of American system of government
- Government is restricted in what it may do and each individual is has rights that the government cannot take away
Checks and Balances?
- Basic principle of the American system of government
- System of overlapping powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches to permit each branch to check the actions of others
What is a social contract theory?
- The state arose out of a voluntary act of free people
- The state exists to serve the will of the people
- People are the sole source of political power
- People are free to give or to withhold the power as they choose
Separation of Powers?
- Basic principle of American system of government
- Executive, Legislative, and Judicial powers are divided among three independent and co-equal branches of government
- Enhances concept of limited government by dividing up the power to prevent power in the hands of just one
Federalism?
System of government in which a written constitution divides the power between a central government and several local governments
Principles of American Political Culture?
Freedom- each person shall be free to do as he or she chooses as long as it does not interfere with the rights of another
Bill of Rights?
1st- Freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition
2nd- Right to bear arms
3rd- No quarter of troops during times of peace
4th- The right of the people against unreasonable search and seizures
5th- Criminal Proceedings
6th- Right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury
7th- Right to a jury trial in civil matters in excess 20.00
8th- No cruel and unusual punishment, nor excessive fines or bail
9th- Any rights that are not specifically stated in the Constitution are held by the people
10th- Powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution or are forbidden to the states belong to the states or the people of the states
Formal Amendment Process?
- 2/3 vote of both house and congress
- Ratified
- Formal Amendment Process provides for a way to accommodate a changing society
Marbury VS Madison?
Marbury wanted to become a judge. Incoming president Jefferson withdrew his commission to the judgeship. Marbury filed a suit. Established the Supreme Courts power of judicial review. Struck down the Act of 1789 National Judiciary.
McCulloch VS Maryland?
State of Maryland taxed the bank notes issued by the 2nd bank of the United States. State of Maryland claimed that the federal Government does not have the authority to create a national bank. Supreme Court cited the proper clause to suggest that the federal government does have the authority to create a National bank. Also cited the Supremacy clause to suggest that a conflict between a state government and the US Constitution would favor the US Constitution
Miranda VS Arizona?
Miranda was convicted of kidnapping and rape. He confessed during questioning but was not read his rights. Supreme Court overturned Miranda's conviction laying down the Miranda rule..
1. told of his or her right to remain silent
2. warned that anything he or she says can be used in court
3. informed of right to any attorney
4. if can't afford one court will provide one
5. can end questioning at any time
Plessy VS Ferguson?
Herman Plessy challenged a Louisiana law which required separate seating for white and African American on railroad cars. He cited the 14th Amendment. Supreme Court ruled that as long as the facilities were separate but equal. Only gave them political and civil equality not social equality.
Brown VS Board of Education Of Topeka?
Brown wasn't able to attend school because she was African American. She cited the 14th amendment.
Supreme court overturned the Plessy VS Ferguson ruling stating that separate was not equal
Suffrage Amendments?
15th Amendment- right to vote could not be denied based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude
19th Amendment- Right to could could not be denied based on gender
Civil Rights Act?
Act of 1964- No person may be denied access or refused service in public
Act of 1968- Forbids anyone from refusing to sell or rent to anyone on the grounds of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, or disability
Voting Rights ACT of 1965?
Finally made the 15th amendment effective by applying it all elections
How does a bill become a law?
1. introduced to the house or congress
2. referred to standing committee
3. referred to subcommittee hearings
4. debate on floor
5. voted on
6. if it passes one chamber its sent to the next chamber
7. Sent to conference committee to work out differences in the bill between the chambers
8. sent to president
What is the due process of law?
The government cannot arbitrarily deny your right to life, liberty, or property
What is eminent Domain?
Government may seize private property for public use
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