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wind turbine

Mechanical energy (wind) to electricity

Pros of Wind Turbines

Least expensive alternate energy
No carbon emission
Once tower is up, almost no cost to maintain

What country leads the world in wind energy generating?


Wind Power

Radiant energy from the sun heats Earth and atmosphere

Day Winds

air is heated from ground, warm air flows upward, cold air replaces it

Night Winds

air cools more quickly over land than water

Atmospheric Wind

Air heated more from ground near equator

Cons of Wind Energy

High start-up cost

Energy companies see it as a supplemental power

Strong winds usually not near population
Energy grids are not set up for wind

Tidal Energy

Energy that can be obtained from movement of water due to gravitational pull of sun, moon, and Earth's rotation.

Pros of Tidal Energy

It's reliable and consistent
It gives off very little pollution
Lessen the burden of fossil fuels and nuclear energy!

Cons of Tidal Energy

Environmental Impact
High startup cost
Low efficiency in some cases

Solar Energy from the Sun is converted to...

Heat and Electricity

Cons of Solar Energy

Secondary Pollution (Toxic materials and alcohols
Blocking the sun for some animals
No direct pollution though!)
Bird death ray
Startup cost

Geothermal Energy

Heat is recovered as steam or hot water to:
1. Create electricity
2. Heat buildings

Geothermal Reservoirs-

pockets of hot water or steam underground

Cons of Geothermal Energy

Release less than 1% of CO2
Hydrogen Sulfide pollution
97% less acid rain pollutants
Sources of geothermal are often National Treasures

Renewable Energy Source

Replenish themselves or are continuously present

Nonrenewable Energy Source

Finite supply being used faster than they can be replenished


Naturally occurring substance that can potentially be extracted using modern technology


Known deposits which can be extracted from profitably using modern technology under certain economic conditions


lowest rank of coal


most used renewable resource in the United States


where the most Geothermal Energy is produced in all of the United States

tidal range

the difference between low and high tide. the height difference.


produces electricity and heat

3 things that increase volity of coal


rance river estuary

barrage dam

renewable energy

energy resource that can replenish itself

anaerobic digestion

bacteria breaks biomass down without oxygen with product mixed gas. LFG's


compact biomass with high temperatures, increading the VED

direct combustion

just burning biomass


burning to get heat and electricity


solid to liquid biomass with chemistry and heat


same as pyrolysis BUT, more heat and less gas

ethanol production

bacteria ferment BM with sugars


burning wood

solid waste

burning "rubbish."

fossil fuels

most used energy source in the united states


volumetric energy density---- increased by pelletisation

Other names for the "rank" of coal

Hardness, volatility

2 ways to harvest solar energy

photovoltaic (PV) devices or Solar Energy Plant

acid mine drainage

acidic precursors from coal mines get into surrounding water sources due to rain flushing them out


shifting of ground as a result of drilling/mining under it

secondary recovery

pumping water into an oil well to increase pressure and improve recovery

liquefied natural gas

natural gas that is super cooled to gas phase so it can be transported easier/safer

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