Terms in this set (80)
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Congress could not...
-Raise money by collecting taxes
-Control foreign trade or regulate commerce
-Force states to carry out its laws
All states had to agree to any amendments
Lasting effect of Shays' Rebellion
Frightened many Americans, as they worried that the government could not control unrest and prevent violence.
A Virginia planter that was active in the movement for changes to the Articles of Confederation to be made.
Father of the Constitution
American patriot who participated in the American Revolution and the Constitutional Convention and who was influential in penning the Bill of Rights.
A government in which citizens rule through elected representatives.
George Washington's attendance gave this meeting significance, and presided over the meetings
Only white men were represented
Each state has one vote, and a simple majority vote made decision
No meetings unless 7 of the 13 delegates were present
Legislative branch would have two houses
Both houses would assign representatives based on wealth/population.
Proposed by Edmund Randolph
New Jersey Plan
Legislature would have one house
Each state would only have 1 vote
Proposed by William Paterson
The number of representatives in each state in the senate is equal.
The legislature will have 2 houses.
The house of representatives would be based on population.
Counted each enslaved person as three-fifths of a free person for determining both taxation and representation.
Sharing of powers between federal and state governments.
-Want to ratify the Constitution
-Need for a stronger central government
-Favored dividing powers among different branches
-Wanted a single person to lead the executive branch
-Did not want to ratify the Constitution
-Believed the Constitution gave too much power to the national government at the expense of the state government
-Wanted a Bill of Rights & weak federal government
-Thought executive branch had too much power
Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and right to petition the government
Protects a citizen's rights to bear arms
Prevents the government from quartering troops with permission
Search and seizure
The government cannot unreasonably search or take away the property of citizens.
No one must testify in court if they do not wish to incriminate themselves
Prosecution and punishment with due process
Speedy trial and public trial
Criminals are told of crime that they are accused of, and are allowed to speak to witnesses
Must be provided a lawyer, can compel testimony from witnesses
Civil cases shall face a trial by jury
Prevents excessive bail and fines, as well as cruel and unusual punishment
Americans have rights not listed in the Constitution.
All powers not given to the federal government belong to the states
Created a single Northwest territory out of the lands north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River. The lands were to be divided into 3-5 smaller territories, which were granted statehood with the population reach 60,000.
Bill of rights for settlers: guaranteeing freedom of religion, and trial by jury, as well as abolishing slavery
1st Principle of the Constitution
Government gets their power from the consent of the people.
2nd Principle of the Constitution
People elect representatives
People are ultimate source of governmental power
3rd Principle of the Constitution
Rule of law- No person or group of people is above the law
4th Principle of the Constitution
Enumerated powers belonging to the federal government
Reserved powers belonging to the states
Concurrent powers are shared
5th Principle of the Constitution
Separation of Powers
Federal government divided into 3 branches
Each group has its own functions and powers
6th Principle of the Constitution
Checks and Balances
Each branch of the government can check or limit the power of the other branches to maintain a balance of power
7th Principle of the Constitution
Protects basic liberties and rights
Regulate interstate and foreign trade
Maintain army and navy
Create federal courts
Carry out all expressed powers
Power to establish schools
Power to pass marriage and divorce laws
Regulate trade within a state
All powers not specifically in the Constitution
Protect public welfare and safety
Establish local governments
Provide for general welfare
Makes the nation's laws, controls government taxes, imposes taxes, declares war
House of Representatives - the Speaker is the leader
Senate - the VP is the president, president pro tempore is in charge
Power of impeachment
Ratify treaties and approve presidential appointments of federal officials
Carries out laws passed by the Congress
President: Head of the executive branch
Commander in Chief
Head of State
Cabinet and Vice President
Supreme Court and lower courts
Lower Federal Courts-
District Courts: Civil and criminal cases
Appeals Courts: Reviews decision, overturns verdict, orders retrials
Justices that hear and rule on cases
Checks and Balances
-Reject/veto laws passed by Congress
-Appoint and approve federal judges
-Impeach judges; reject the appointment of judges
-Impeach president; override veto; reject appointments; refuse to approve treats
-Declare presidential actions unconstitutional
-Declare legislative actions unconstitutional
Role of the Supreme Court
This is the top of the American legal system.
Decides which cases to hear, decides the case itself, and explaining the decision
Strikes down acts of Congress, using the right to determine whether a law violates the Constitution
What makes the Constitution a living document?
The Constitution is a living document because the Framers wrote a document stating that the nation could alter and adapt to meet changing needs, meaning that it can be interpreted in many different ways, and be adapted constantly.
Political theory that government is subject to the will of the people
Separation of Powers
Dividing the government into 3 branches, each with their own functions and powers.
Favoring a republic or representative democracy as the best form of government
Establishes the idea of popular sovereignty, created to establish a government, "by the people, for the people."
"We the people..."
To overturn or defeat a bill proposed in Congress
To formally charge a public official with misconduct in office
Given official approval to
The right to vote
Government only with powers granted by the people
Legal order for an inquiry to determine whether a person has been lawfully imprisoned
Cancel or postpone the punishment of
A special group of voters selected by their state's voters to vote for the president and vice president
Requirements for President
35 years old
Resident of the US for 14 years
Natural born citizen
Requirements for Senate
30 years old
US citizen for 9 years
Resident of state the senator represents
Requirements for House of Representatives
25 years old
US citizen for 7 years
Resident of state chosen to represents
Presidential Terms of Office
Senate Terms of Office
House of Representatives Terms of Office
Supreme Court Terms of Office
How many of the 13 original states had to ratify the new Constitution for it to go into effect?
Came up with the Great Compromise
Ex post facto law
Something must be considered illegal before you do it in order to be punished.
The right of a government or its agent to expropriate private property for public use, with payment of compensation.
Explains how a resident can sue another state or a citizen of another state.
Electors vote by ballot for president and VP.
Slavery is abolished.
All citizens have equal rights.
All men can vote regardless of race, color, or whether they were slaves.
Federal government can collect income tax.
Senators directly elected by the people
Prohibits sale, production, importation, and transportation of alcohol.
Women have the right to vote.
Terms of president (start/end of terms) and Congress (meetings)
Repealed prohibition of alcohol
Limits president terms to 2.
Give people in DC the right to vote for president.
Made it illegal to pay a tax to have the right to vote.
Addresses presidential disability, changes what happens if president dies, resigns, or cannot do the job
Gives 18 year old the right to vote.
Limits how much Congress can increase how much its members are paid.