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110 terms

BCC Parasitology Test 2

STUDY
PLAY
Trophozoite
active feeding stage of protozoa
Cyst
survival stage of protozoa, organelles double
Trichrome Stain
always use for ID confirmation
Giardia lamblia
Pathogenic flagellate protozoa, known as "Beaver Fever" found worldwide
-Ingest infective cyst form contaminated food, drink, breakdown in sanitation
-Excyst in duodenum
-Trophs attach to large intestine
-Encystment in large intestine
-Diagnosed using Trichrome stains, O&Px3, up to 3 stools may be required, looking for cysts!
Giardia lamblia (Trophozoite Diagram)
Giardia lamblia Trophozoite
Giardia lamblia (Cyst Diagram)
Giardia lamblia Cyst
Trichomonas vaginalis
Pathogenic Flagellate Protozoa
-No Cyst stage
-Diagnosed by "Twitchy motility" if kept warm
-Difficult to recognize on a permanent stain
-Troph in tissue and secretions
-Males asymptomatic
Trichomonas vaginalis (Trophozoite Diagram)
Trichomonas vaginalis Trophozoite
Trichomonas hominis
Non-pathogenic Flagellate Protozoan, found worldwide
-No Cyst stage
-Motile is fresh stools
-Difficult to stain
-Oral-fecal transmission, treatment not recommended
Trichomonas hominis (Trophozoite Diagram)
Trichomonas hominis Trophozoite
Chilomastix mesnili
Non-pathogenic Flagellate Protozoa
-lives in cecal region of large intestine
-fecal-oral transmission
-looks like yeast
-"Pear Shaped"
Chilomastix mesnili (Trophozoite Diagram)
Chilomastix mesnili Trophozoite
Chilomastix mesnili (Cyst Diagram)
Chilomastix mesnili Cyst
Balantidium coli
Pathogenic Ciliate Protozoa
-Causes Dysentary with persistent diarrhea beforehand
-Can't function w/o macronucleus, "kidney bean-shaped"
-Wet preps are best for viewing, can be confused with helmenth egg
-Domestic hogs are reservoir in Subtropics/Tropics
-Ingestion of infective cysts in food, water
Balantidium coli (Trophozoite Diagram)
Balantidium coli Trophozoite
Balantidium coli (Cyst Diagram)
Balantidium coli Cyst
Intestinal Amebae
-Unique cysts, CYSTS ARE DIAGNOSTIC STAGE
-Motile by pseudopodia
-Have Trophozoites & Cysts
Chromatin
-The combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell.
-Stains red/Purple
Peripheral Chromatin
Wavy outerlayer
Karyosome
Chromatin material inside cell nucleus (separate piece in center)
Entamoeba histolytica & E. dyspar
Worldwide Pathogenic Amoeba
Amoebic Lifecycle:
-Asymptomatic=Passing cysts, Negative for Occult Blood, cysts survive in cold
-Morphologically identical to E. hartman (which is smaller)
-Oral-Fecal Transmission

Histolytica=pathogenic
Dyspar=non-pathogenic
-Ingested RBCs give away diagnosis
-Max 4 nuclei
-Mucosal penetration, ulcers in cecum, appendix, spread to brain, lung, liver, much Dysentary
-MUST use permanent stain to confirm ID, negative on Occult Blood
-Cysts survive longer in Cold=28-34C
-Have peripheral chromatin and karyosome
Entamoeba histolytica
Nuclear Morphology of:
Entamoeba histolytica & E. dyspar (Trophozoite Diagram)
Entamoeba histolytica & E. dyspar Trophozoite
Entamoeba histolytica & E. dyspar Trophozoite with WBCs
Entamoeba histolytica & E. dyspar (Cyst Diagram)
Entamoeba histolytica & E. dyspar Cyst
Entamoeba histolytica & E. dyspar Cyst with Glycogen vacule (Unmatured)
Entamoeba hartmanni
NonPathogenic Amoeba
-Oral-Fecal transmission
-No treatment recommended
-SAmoebic Lifecycle, E. histolytica=larger
-Diagnoses on Permanent stain with NO ingested RBCs
Entamoeba hartmanni
Nuclear Morphology of:
Entamoeba hartmanni (Trophozoite Diagram)
Entamoeba hartmanni Trohpozoite
Entamoeba hartmanni (Cyst Diagram)
Entamoeba hartmanni Cyst
L=Entamoeba histolytica
R=Entamoeba hartmanni
Notice Size Difference in Trophozoites, Which is which?
Entamoeba coli
Worldwide NonPathogenic Amoeba
-Amoebic Lifecycle
-Mature cysts most diagnostic on permanent stains, NO ingestion of RBCs
-Oral-Fecal transmission
-Off center karyosome, random peripheral chromatin, >4 nuclei
Entamoeba coli
Nuclear Morphology of:
Entamoeba coli (Trophozoite Diagram)
Entamoeba coli Trophozoite
Entamoeba coli (Cyst Diagram)
Entamoeba coli Cyst
Endolomax nana
Worldwide NonPathogenic Amoeba
-Like warm, moist regions
-Amoebic Lifecycle
-If using iodine wet prep instead of trichrome stain, you won't be able to see nucleus
-Have 4 nuclei with blot-like karyosome
Endolomax nana
Nuclear morphology of:
Endolomax nana (Trophozoite Diagram)
Endolomax nana Trophozoite
Endolomax nana (Cyst Diagram)
Endolomax nana Cyst
Iodamoeba butschii
Worldwide NonPathogenic Amoeba
-Likes tropics
Iodamoeba butschii
Nuclear Morphology of:
Iodamoeba butschii (Trophozoite Diagram)
Iodamoeba butschii Trophozoite
Iodamoeba butschii (Cyst Diagram)
Iodamoeba butschii Cyst
Notice the Glycogen Vacule!
Blastocystis hominis
Amoeba, Sometimes Pathogenic, when numerous
-Usually commensile
-Oral-Fecal Transmission
-Symptoms: diarrhea, cramps, nausea, fever, vomiting, abdominal pain
-Seen in Vacoulated Form, but also exists as granulated form, amoebic form, and cyst form.
Blastocystis hominis (Vacoulated Form Diagram)
Blastocystis hominis Vacuolated Form
Blastocystis hominis ("Dividing")
Dientamoeba fragilis
Worldwide Pathogenic Flagellate
-FLAGELLATE
-No cyst stage!!
-Asymptomatic carrier state, then diarrhea, abdominal pain, blood/mucus in stool, gas nausea, vomiting, weight loss, fatigue
-Diagnosis made on Permanent Stains with multiple specimens
Possible association with helminth infections, transmitted via ova?
-Troph looks like "oval with eyes"
Dientamoeba fragilis
Nuclear Morphology of:
Dientamoeba fragilis (Trophozoite Diagram)
Dientamoeba fragilis Trophozoite
Sporozoa
-Infect intestinal mucosa
-Cause diarrheal illness in humans
-Oocysts are diagnostic stage and are spore-like in the fact that they are resistant
-Sporozoites start inside Oocyst
Cryptosporidium parvum
Pathogenic Sporozoa
-From "Baby Cows"
-Causes Cryptosporidiosis
-Systemic spread with immunocompromised, life threatening with HIV+
-Significant morbidity and mortality
-Look like yeasts, Use modified ACID FAST STAINS->AF=pink
-Fecal-Oral water/food Transmission
-Biggest outbreak in US, in Milwaukee in '92, water treatment plant from river
-Stages:
Schizonts, Merozoites, Gametocytes, Oocysts, Sporozoites
Cryptosporidium parvum (Diagram)
Cryptosporidium parvum
Cryptosporidium parvum
Cyclospora cayetanensis
Pathogenic
-Larger than parvum, longer duration, and more sever effects
-Diagnosed on wet preps, modified ACID FAST STAIN
-Looks like "Perfectly Round," "Cut Glass"/"Nut Bowl" using trichrome stain, doesn't stain Oocyst
-Autofluorescent!
-Fecal-OralTransmission
Cyclospora cayetanensis
Cyclospora cayetanensis
Cyclospora cayetanensis
Isospora belli
Pathogenic
-No intermediate hosts, Humans are DEFINITIVE host!
-Use modified ACID FAST STAIN
-Transmission from contaminated food/water, Sexual transmission!!
Stages:
Oocysts, Sporoblasts, Sporocysts, Sporoxoites
Isospora belli (Diagram)
Isospora belli
Isospora belli
Toxoplasma gondii
Pathogenic
-Causes Toxoplasmosis, AKA: Cat Scratch Disease
-MOST SUCCESSFUL Human parasite
-Serologic testing, during preganancy, can cross placenta, part of TORCH titer
-Transmission=ingest oocysts
-Many intermediate hosts
-Cats are definitive hosts
-Mimics Mono
Stages:
Tachyzoites, Bradyzoites, Oocysts
Toxoplasma gondii (Diagram)
Microsporidia
-Metabolically reduced specialized fungi, mostly in insects
-Obligate, intracellular, spore-forming protists
-7 genera infect humans, Enterocytozoon bienuesi
-Mainly in immunocompromised
-Trichrome, Giemsa stains
Microsporidia
Plasmodium
Protozoa
-Worldwide cause of mosquito-acquired malaria if traveled recently
-Complex lifecycles- Stages: Ring forms (early torphozoites), Developing trophozoites, Immature schizonts, Mature schizonts (with merozoites), Microgametocytes, Macrogametocytes
-First week=asymptomatic, asynchronous division, Rupturing RBC's at different times. Symptoms most prominent when they are synchronized.
-Used to control Syphilis with plasmodium
-Fever spikes in cycles
Plasmodium vivax
Fever spikes at 48 hrs
Plasmodium vivax
Plasmodium ovale
Fever spikes at 48 hrs
Plasmodium ovale
Plasmodium malariae
Fever spikes at 72 hrs
Plasmodium malariae
Plasmodium falciparum
Fever spikes at 36-48 hrs
-Affects the brain
-Only parasite that can be potentially immediately fatal
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium knowlasi
-Newest, only in a small area
"Signet Ring"
Appears on Early Trophozoite. Forms before Hepatic stage- when plasmodium enters liver and sets up camp. Reproduces and breaks out of liver, into RBC's, this is where its diagnosed. Busts out of cell and starts over. Classic signs start when it keeps reproducing/cycling.
Recrudescence
Erythrocytic cycle not eliminated, Symptoms return quickly
Relapse
Erythrocytic cycle eliminated, Reinfection of RBC's from liver, Return of symptoms much delayed >20 yrs.
Babesia
Worldwide Protozoa
-Rodent is intermediate host
-TX by ticks
-General malaise, fever, chills
-Self-limiting infection
-Mimics P. falciparum ring forms with "Maltese cross" instead of signet ring
Babesia
Hemoflagellate
Protozoa
-Stages: Amasitgote, Promastigote, Epimastigote, Trypomastigote
-Amastigote is non flagellated stage where it grows and eventually kills macrophage that ate it
Hemoflagellate Stages
"Looks like Platelets"
Mostly will see with flagella in mature stage
Hemoflagellate with Epimastigotes
Burst Macrophage
Trypomastigote Stage
Trypanosoma brucei gambesiense
West African Sleeping Sickness
-West/Central Africa
-Tsetse fly is insect host/vector
-Chancer at bite site, swollen lymph nodes, apathy, fatigue, death
-Diagnosis from blood smears, pt history, both amastigotes and trypomastigotes present
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
East African Sleeping Sickness
-East/Central Africa
-Tsetse fly is insect host/vector
-Early CNS involvement, more aggressive
-Diagnosis from blood smears, pt history, both amastigotes and trypomastigotes present, highly infectious- can go through skin if not covered!
-Many ANIMAL reservoirs
Trypanosoma cruzi
Chaga's Disease
-South/Central America
-Reduvid bugs are insect host/vector
-Invades many organs, especially heart
-Painful nodule on face, rash around eyes
-Death as early as several weeks after attack
Diagnosis from blood smears, pt history, both amastigotes and trypomastigotes present
Leishmania
-Worldwide
-Sandfly is insect host/vector
-Obligate intracellular (macrophage) parasites
-Painless papule at bite site, secondary bacterial/fungal infections, Eats away at tissue like cancer and spread throughout body with macrophages- DEADLY
-No flagellated forms in humans, only amastigotes (in macrophages)