rebellion of the British American Atlantic seaboard colonies; ended with the formation of the independent United States.
overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy through a revolution beginning in 1789; created a republic and eventually ended with Napoleon's French Empire; the source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.
adopted during the French Revolution; proclaimed the equality of French citizens; became a source document for later liberal movements.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
second revolution against the Bourbon dynasty; a liberal movement which created a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy.
French Revolution of 1830
produced Belgian independence from the Dutch; established a constitutional monarchy.
Belgian Revolution of 1830
intensification of all of the processes of production at a single site during the Industrial Revolution; involved greater organization of labor and increased discipline
overthrew the French monarchy established in 1830; briefly established the second French Republic.
French Revolution of 1848
British politician; granted the vote to working-class males in 1867; an example of conservative politicians keeping stability through reform.
architect of Italian unification in 1858; created a constitutional Italian monarchy under the King of Piedmont.
Camillo di Cavour
conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under the Prussian king in 1871; utilized liberal reforms to maintain stability.
Otto von Bismarck
fought to prevent secession of the southern states; the first war to incorporate the products and techniques of the Industrial Revolution; resulted in the abolition of slavery and the reunification of the United States.
American Civil War (1861-1865)
sought legal and economic gains for women, among them equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on the right to vote; won initial support from middle-class women.
biologist who developed the theory of evolution of the species; argued that all living forms evolved through the successful ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.
formulated mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; about 1900 issued the theory of relativity.
historical argument that the development of the United States was largely individualistic and that contact with Europe was incidental to American formation.