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rebellion of the British American Atlantic seaboard colonies; ended with the formation of the independent United States.

American Revolution

overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy through a revolution beginning in 1789; created a republic and eventually ended with Napoleon's French Empire; the source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.

French Revolution

adopted during the French Revolution; proclaimed the equality of French citizens; became a source document for later liberal movements.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

met in 1815 after the defeat of France to restore the European balance of power.

Congress of Vienna

second revolution against the Bourbon dynasty; a liberal movement which created a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy.

French Revolution of 1830

produced Belgian independence from the Dutch; established a constitutional monarchy.

Belgian Revolution of 1830

intensification of all of the processes of production at a single site during the Industrial Revolution; involved greater organization of labor and increased discipline

Factory system

overthrew the French monarchy established in 1830; briefly established the second French Republic.

French Revolution of 1848

British politician; granted the vote to working-class males in 1867; an example of conservative politicians keeping stability through reform.

Benjamin Disraeli

architect of Italian unification in 1858; created a constitutional Italian monarchy under the King of Piedmont.

Camillo di Cavour

conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under the Prussian king in 1871; utilized liberal reforms to maintain stability.

Otto von Bismarck

fought to prevent secession of the southern states; the first war to incorporate the products and techniques of the Industrial Revolution; resulted in the abolition of slavery and the reunification of the United States.

American Civil War (1861-1865)

sought legal and economic gains for women, among them equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on the right to vote; won initial support from middle-class women.

Feminist movements

biologist who developed the theory of evolution of the species; argued that all living forms evolved through the successful ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.

Charles Darwin

formulated mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; about 1900 issued the theory of relativity.

Albert Einstein

historical argument that the development of the United States was largely individualistic and that contact with Europe was incidental to American formation.

American exceptionalism

movements to create independent states and reunite ethnic groups in the Balkans; provoked crises within the European alliance system that ended with the outbreak of World War I.

Balkan nationalism

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