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89 terms

chapter 15 personality vocab

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personality
an individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
psychoanalysis
freuds theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts, the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
unconscious
according to freud, a reservoir of mostly unecceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. according to contemporary psychologists, informations processing of which we are unaware
id
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. this operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
ego
the largely conscious "executive" part of personality that, according to freud, mediates among the demands of id supergo and reality. this operates on the reality principle, satisfying the ids desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
superego
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
identification
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
fixation
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
defense mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
regression
psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
projection
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
rationalization
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
displacement
taking out ones anger or frustration on a person or object that is not the cause of the offense
collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
projective test
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
TAT
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
terror management theory
proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
self actualization
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
self concept
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
trait
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
personality inventory
a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
MMPI
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
empirically derived test
a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
social cognitive perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors you shape your environment and your environment shapes you
personal control
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
internal locus of control
the perception that one controls one's own fate
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
self esteem
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
self serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
oral anal phallic latency genital
list all the psychosexual stages
compensation
a defense mechanism, emphasizing personal strengths in one area to shift focus from failure in another area
denial
a defense mechanism, refusing to accept on obvious situation because of the emotional pain it causes
identification
a defense mechanism, associating with people or groups that are of higher status in order to increase your own status
intellectualization
a defense mechanism, describing painful or emotional personal events in academic or philosophical terms
sublimation
a defense mechanism, using exercise or physical activity as a substitute for sexual energies
adler
who was the neo freudian that agreed childhood was very important but said that social tensions (not sexual) were the key to personality development, said that our behaviors as children are driven by efforts to conquer feelings of inferiority
horney
who was the neo freudian who sought out to balance freuds masculine biases , said childhood anxiety caused by an dependent sense of helplessness triggers our desire for love and security
jung
who was the neo freudian who said unconscious was more than repressed thoughts and feelings, he said we have a collective unconscious, a common reservoir of images and symbols derived from out species universal experiences, explains why people are different cultures share certain myths and images
erikson
who was the neo freudian but believed in freuds psychosexual stages but thought that it was not based on sexuality but on social relationships. his trademark was identity and role confusion which can be an identity crisis or a period when a person decides who they are and where are they going and this must be resolved for a persons identity to be formed
jung
who was the neo freudian that did archetypes?
horney
who was the neo freudian who did basic anxiety
adler
who was the neo freudian who did birth order
jung
who was the neo freudian who did collective unconscious
freud
who did defense mechanisms?
freud
who did ego?
jung
who was the neo freudian who did extroversion
adler
who was the neo freudian who did fictional finalisms
freud
who did ID
erikson
who was the neo freudian who did the identity crisis
jung
who was the neo freudian who did individuation
adler
who was the neo freudian who did inferiority
jung
who was the neo freudian who did introversion
freud
who did psychosexual stages
erikson
who was the neo freudian did psychosocial stages
adler
who was the neo freudian did the style of life
frued
who did the superego
allport
who pioneered trait theory of personality after visiting freud and being disenchanted with psychoanalytical theory? he recognized that some traits are more closely tied to ones self than others like central traits or secondary traits or cardinal traits
central traits
Allport's term for personality characteristics that have a widespread influence on the individual's behavior across situations smart dumb wild sneaky
secondary traits
Allport's term for specific traits that influence behavior in relatively few situations" he gets angry when you try and tickle him" .. situational
cardinal traits
Allport's term to describe personality traits that dominate an individual's life, such as passion to serve others or to accumulate wealth
endomorph
Round and heavy body type friendly and outgoing
ectomorph
a person with a thin non-muscular body.. shy and secretive
mesomorph
muscular and athletic body type.. aggressive
hippocrates
they were really the first to think of personality traits leading to 4 types based on what kind of fluids (called humors) they had too much or too little of.
sanguine
first type of personality traits by hippocrates and greeks, this type is cheerful and optimistic, pleasant to be with, comfortable with his or her work, has an abundant supply of blood
choleric
first type of personality traits by hippocrates and greeks, this type is quick, hot temper, often an aggressive nature. these people have a yellowish complection and tense muscles
phlegmatic
first type of personality traits by hippocrates and greeks , this type are characterized by their slowness, laziness, and dullness
melancholy
first type of personality traits by hippocrates and greeks, this type tends to be sad, even depressed, and take a pessimistic view of the world
openness conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness neuroticism
what are the big 5 personality traits?
mischel
who criticizes trait theory after finding that there was only a .3 correlation between traits and their respected behaviors and argues that personality theorists should consider relationships between traits and situations rather than just stable traits and behaviors is not as consistent as trait theorists claim
depaulo
who wanted to evaluate people voluntary control over their experiences, asked people to act as expressive or inhibited as possible when stating opinions, found that inexpressive people were less expressive than expressive people even where they fake expressiveness visa versa so in other words it is hard to act like someone you are not
the barnum effect
the effect that shows that personality inventory descriptions are vague and people try and agree with an description given to them even if it is the wrong one (horoscopes)
seligman
who strapped dogs into harnesses and gave them electric shocks to teach the dogs that were helpless to avoid the shocks, he then put the dogs in a similar situation where they could not escape but the dogs didn't even try
positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning, aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive (seligman)
markus
who studied the concept of possible selves includes the selves we dream of becoming and the selves we fear becoming
self concept
beliefs about oneself
self efficacy
fairly specific beliefs about those things at which one excels
individualism
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
collectivism
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly