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EDUC 223 Test 2 Final Study Guide Copy
Terms in this set (42)
Spencer Kagan's cooperative learning structures emphasize the "PIES" principle. Identify what each letter stands for in "PIES."
• Positive interdependence (If they all work together it's better for everyone)
• Individual accountability (Making sure everyone is a part)
• Equal participation (Find ways to make students participate)
• Simultaneous interaction (Everyone must be interacting at the same time for people to benefit)
Be able to describe a "structure" for: assignment of partners, mastery of material, and thinking skills
Assignment of partners- Do not line students up by physical chart.
Team building- Pair students up and have them ask questions to get to know each other
Mastery of Material- Have students work together, have one do the work and the other check. So the student can help if the student can't find the answer
Thinking Skills- Give the student 30 seconds to think about the question and then let the partner work with a partner to find the answer, then share with the class
What was the organization of grades in the 1700 and 1800s?
8 year elementary and 4 year high school program
How did the organization of grades change in the late 1800s early 1900s?
7th and 8th grade became part of secondary school. 1913: 6-3-3 1918: 6-6 organization
What committees and commissions influenced the changes in grade organization? What were their specific recommendations?
NEA- 6-3-3 and 6-6 Committee of 10- 7th and 8th grade became part of secondary
What 3 ways did the junior high evolve during the period of 1910 to 1960?
1. Introduction of stronger academic curriculum for 7th and 8th grade
2. Vocational courses added to keep people longer than 8th grade
3. Try and meet unique development characteristics of young adolescents
In 1961 the ASCD released "The Junior High We Need." What were its recommendations?
1. Send 9th grade back to HS
2. Add 6th grade to MS
3. Limit HS-like activities
Why were the books The Middle School and The Emergent Middle School important? What did each provide? Who wrote them?
The Middle School- The book pioneered the middle school movement
a) Physical development
b) Mental growth
c) Socio-cultural forces on the dev. of young adolescents
3. Donald Eichhorn
The Emergent Middle School- This book significantly influenced the emerging middle school
a) Focus on the individual
b) Provide greater continuity between elementary and high school years
c) Accelerate the change process in education
3. William Alexander
When was the NMSA formed? What do the letters stand for?
1973, National Middle School Association
What was the importance of the booklet, This We Believe? What was its purpose? When was it written?
• Listed elements of an ideal middle school
• To promote changes in MS education
In 1989 Turning Points was published. When given the 6 key elements of a modern middle school, be able to define and describe the purpose of each.
1. Large middle grades are divided into smaller communities for learning
2. Middle grades teach a core of common knowledge to all students
3. Middle grades are organized to ensure success for all students
4. Teachers and principals have the major responsibility and power to make decisions about young adolescents' schooling
5. MS are staffed by teachers who are experts in teaching young adolescents
6. Schools promote good health
7. Families are allied with the school staff
8. Schools and communities are partners in education MS students
How did the initiatives of the middle school movement affect numbers of middle schools from 1950 to 1990? Be able to provide numbers.
• 1950: 1 MS in Bay City, Michigan
• 1960: 7,000 JH
• 1965: 500 MS in the US
• 1971: 1,600 MS in US
• 1991: 4,800 MS in US
• 2001: 8,300 MS grades 6-8
What was the first Middle school in the US? When did it start? Where was it located?
Bay City, Michigan; 1950
The latest book sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation guides current middle school theory and practice. What is its name?
Turning Points- Developed 8 guideline principals for preparing young American youth for the 21st century
Be able to identify major milestones in middle level schools as listed in the handout, "Table 2.2 The Later Development of Middle Level Schools"
• 1966- Donald Eichhorn "The Middle School"
• 1968- William Alexander "The Emergent Middle School"
Be able to list how middle level education programs are different from elementary and high school programs, as listed on the handout, "The Middle School: Unique and Transitional."
• More advisor based
• Buildings in houses or teams
• Instruction is diverse
• Curriculum is exploratory and in blocks
Describe the role of "Advocate" in a middle school setting. Include how the concept works for families and communities as well as individual students.
• Advocate to the students they can achieve
• Advocate to families/communities the need to discount myths about this age
Middle school students are very good at identifying hypocrisy in their elders. Be able to list and explain at least three behaviors you think are important to model appropriately for your students.
Prompt. Positive. Polite. Prepared. Productive.
What "added value" do you think a Christian teacher might bring to a middle school classroom? Does faith matter in teaching in the public schools? Why or Why not?
• More patience, caring attitude, praying over your students, seeing kids as they are in Christ, be more natural to model behaviors since we do it in all aspects.
• Christ brought you to this calling, not just doing it to make money
List and describe at least four essential program components that "This We Believe in Action" ADVOCATES for middle level teacher program preparation.
• Challenging - ensuring that every student learns and every member of the learning community is held to high standards
• Empowering - providing all students with the knowledge and skills they need to take responsibility for their lives
• Equitable - advocating for and ensuring every student's right to learn and providing challenging and relevant opportunities for every student
• Developmentally Responsive - using the distinctive nature of young adolescents as the foundation upon which all decisions about the school are made
Why does This We Believe advocate for teacher preparation in two teaching fields for middle level teachers? Why or Why not do you believe this is appropriate?
• So teachers who are teamed together have options
• Approximately one-third of all school districts in the United States are considered rural (which is a lot). As Department officials have traveled the country listening to teachers and state and district officials, they frequently have heard that the highly qualified teacher provisions of the No Child Left Behind law don't adequately accommodate the special challenges faced by teachers in small, rural districts. Often, the teachers in these areas are required to teach more than one academic subject.
For your subject area, what do you think are the intellectual tools and strategies that are important to foster in middle school students? Describe at least three.
Compare and contrast story elements
analyze development of elements of fiction
make predictions in accordance with story elements and background information
If intelligence is incremental rather than fixed, what implications does that have for your teaching in middle school? How would you answer the child that says, "I'm too dumb to learn this."
• Everyone student can learn and expand their intelligence if they work hard. Different subjects are harder for different students. Keep trying; you will get it.
What does "Active Learning" mean in the context of middle school education? Why is it important? Describe what your class will look like in terms of this concept.
Active learning: Teacher's working with students to engage the intellectual, social, and moral sensibilities of students
-pair and share
-emphasize honesty in knowing and not knowing the answer
What is an "integrated curriculum?" Describe at least two reasons it is advocated for middle school students.
An integrated curriculum is making connections between different subjects and standards to real life situations.
1. Ownership (choice)
2. Engagement increases
Compare and contrast in (at least 3 ways) active and passive learning at the middle school level.
Teacher driven (Passive) Student driven (active)
1. Test versus group project
2. Lecture versus discussion
3. Worksheet versus interactive online game
According to This We Believe in Action what four components (ingredients) make an effective curriculum? Be able to describe each of these components.
1. Relevant - "... it allows students to pursue answers students have about themselves, content, and the world." p. 37
2. Integrative - It incorporates multiple disciplines
3. Challenging - It helps students assume control of their own learning
4. Exploratory - It capitalizes on student's intellectual curiosity
Student engagement in middle school depends in part on relevance, individual pace, and reflection. Describe at least one thing for each of these elements you plan to do in your middle school class to enhance engagement with your subject matter.
1. Relevance-reading workshop model? select books to read in class together, in book talks, and alone that foster themes present in adolescence.
2. Individual pace-keep students accountable for their own created due dates for reading books in and outside of class
3. Reflection-free-writes on writing prompts with units
Curriculum in middle school should promote individual efficacy for students in terms of competence, responsibility, affiliation, awareness, and ethical perception of self. What does each of these terms mean, and how will you promote them in your classroom? (I CAN statements)
• Competence - What are you good at? (let students choose their roles in group projects based on their strengths)
• Affiliation - foster ownership of learning (
• Awareness - "I know what is going on" Give opportunities for students to share this knowledge.
• Responsibility - Foster growth in this area. MS kids want to be perceived as adults, at least in some aspects.
• Ethical perception of self - Developing a moral compass and acting on it.
Based on the article, "Project-based learning engages students in meaningful work" describe at least one project that would work well in your subject area that could be authentic, applied learning, active exploration, has adult connections, and has elements of authentic assessment.
• Learners create board games for young learners to learn about Shakespeare
• Learners create children's books
Explain why are multiple learning approaches are needed
Not every child or person learns the same way
What is a learning style?
preferential way a person interprets information
Be able to explain each of the four "versus" learning styles in the Richard Felder model.
• Visual- see pictures, videos, demonstratives versus written or spoken explanations
• Active- Do something with it versus think about it
• Sensing- learning facts versus discovering patterns
• Sequential- linear steps versus big picture
Be able to explain the three learning styles in the VARK model.
Students can maximize their learning by focusing on the mode that benefits them the most.
Given a student's learning style, be able to recommend an appropriate course of action to help that child master an identified skill.
The teacher poses questions then lets the students figure it out rather than stating facts
Students learn through open-ended problems
Builds on prior knowledge through experience based on student's interests. Students take complete control of their learning.
Small teams of students, each of different levels, use a variety of activities to understand.
Immersion in multiple disciplines. Creates closure to the issue of real-world application in the classroom.
Work for an extended amount of time to investigate an engaging question
When given a scenario and one of these methods, be able to describe how a lesson could be effectively taught with that method.
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