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Warren G. Harding

republican president at the start of the 1920's; slogan was "return to normalcy"


a government in which the state owns most of the property, regulated the economy, and runs most of the industry


a system in which people in society cooperate and own property mutually

"Red Scare"

a period whereby many people became fearful of anyone who might be a communist or a threat to the US freedom

Palmer Raids

suspected communist and people perceived to be a threat were arrested and jailed

mass production

this concept truly set Ford apart from most innovators of his time (assembly line)


the first source of mass communication and entertainment available to people in their own homes

radio and movies

two of the most important developments in media


this became a popular form of music after WWI; originated in New Orleans, audience was mainly blacks and young whites

Lewis Armstrong

a trumpet player and singer from New Orleans was among the most noted jazz musicians

Langston Hughes

he wrote memorable pouty, short stories about the black experience that reminded blacks of their African heritage

Harlem Renaissance

a rebirth of mainly literate of black artists in Harlem during the 1920's; Langston Hughes, Zora Neal Hurston were key artists of this era

Tin Pin Alley

various music houses in NYC where songwriter and musicians composed and published songs hoping to get their big break

Irving Berlin

one of the most famous musicians and songwriters associated with Tin Pin Alley; most famous hit was "White Christmas"

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

this agency built hydroelectric dams to create jobs and brought jobs and cheap electricity to parts of the south (Southern Appalachian areas)

Huey P. Long

one of FDR's harshest critics; he wanted a redistribution of wealth and a guaranteed income of $2000 per year for every US family

National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)

aka the Wagner Act; this law protected workers right to join unions

Social Security Act (SSA)

passed in 1935; this act established retirement income for all workers once they reached the age of 65; provided benefits to certain unemployment workers

Revenue Act of 1935

this law raised taxes on those making above $50,000 a year

court packing scheme

in this scene, the president proposed enlarging the Supreme Court from nine to as many as fifteen judges; this would allow him to pack the court with justices favorable to his programs

Neutrality Act

this act prohibited the sale of weapons to warring nations and was meant to keep the US from forming alliances that might drag the US into war

Eleanor Roosevelt

she was one of the most impactful first ladies; she worked for the rights of women and minorities and she worked hard on the domestic front

Adolf Hitler

came to power in Germany; known as the Fuhrer, established the Nazi Party

Benito Mussolini

came to power in Italy; IL Deuce invaded Ethiopia and established fascism

Axis Powers

consisted of Italy, Germany and Japan

A. Philip Randolph

this black leader proposed a march on Washington to protest racial discrimination in the military and the war industries

Fair Employment Act

this act prohibited discrimination in the national defense industry


this event began September 1, 1939, after Germany invaded Poland

Joseph Stalin

Soviet leader who signed the Non-Aggression Pact with Hitler; established the "5 year plan"

Battle of Britain

this was an air battle that took place as the German air force launched an air attack against the Royal Air Force; which the British were saved by the new invention of radar

Lend-Lease Act

under this act, the president found send aid to any nation whose defense was considered vital to the Us national security; the country could defer the payments until later

Pearl Harbor

the US Naval fleet was anchored at this location whereby it was bombed by Japanese forces in 1941

December 7, 1941

the date of Pearl Harbor where President Roosevelt said it would live in infamy

internment camps

camps designed to detain those of Japanese dissent (Japanese-Americans)

Allied Powers

the US, Great Britain, Soviet Union, and a total of 26 nations who stood together in defeating the Axis


the allied invasion of Normandy, France; official name was Operation Overlord


the spring of 1945, this key city fell which lead to HItler's fall

Holocaust/concentration camps

Jews and other prisoners were immediately put to death or forced to provide slave labor before finally being executed or dying of disease or starvation


after Pearl Harbor, the Japanese attacked this Us held territory in the Pacific; drove McArthur out, who vowed to return

Bataan Death March

forced to walk 60 miles to trains waiting to carry them to prisoner-of-war camps, many of the prisoners died from injuries, sickness and harsh conditions

Battle of Midway

June 1942, proved to be the turning point in the war; boosted the morale of the US Pacific forces and allowed the US to finally go on offense in its war with Japan

island hopping

attacked and conquered one group of islands then moved on to the next as its forces made their way to Japan

Manhattan Project

the making of the atomic bomb by Oppenheimer and other scientists

Los Alamos, New Mexico

location of the atomic bomb labs

Harry S Truman

became president after Roosevelt's death; made the decision to drop the atomic bomb

Enola Gay

B29 bomber which dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan

V-J Day

the name given for Victory over Japan Day

War Production Board (WPB)

this board redirected raw materials and resources from the production of civilian consumer goods to the production of materials needed for waging war against Germany and Japan

victory gardens

these gardens gave people a chance to help in the war effort by planting their own gardens


the government could control how certain resources were distributed

Rosie the Riveter

described a woman who worked in the factory a a riveter while her boyfriend served in the military; served as a symbol of those women who entered the workforce

laissez faire

the idea that government should not regulate business or try to manipulate the market but let the market adjust


goal is to make high risk investments in hopes of making large returns on their money

buying on the margin

buying stock for only a portion of what it cost


the practice of people buying and consuming products


when the market has more of a product than consumers want

under consumption

caused by consumers not buying the products


a shortage of rain

Dust Bowl

a series of storms in the early 1930's that hit the Midwest causing enormous clouds to be created by the high winds

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929, a state whereby the stock market crashed

Great Depression

this economic disaster lasted more than a decade and remains the greatest crisis in US history (1929-1941)

Herbert Hoover

US president at the onset or beginning of the Great Depression


these provided food for the poor, mainly in the cities


makeshift shacks and shantytowns named to show their negative view of the president

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

he won the presidential elect in 1932; became the democratic president what introduces the New Deal

New Deal

new legislation and programs introduced by Roosevelt and Congress

direct (federal) relief

federal government helping those hurting form the financial crisis

first 100 days

during this time, roosevelt pushed program after program through Congress in an effort to provide economic relief and recovery

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

established in 1933,this agency provided employment for unmarried men and women between the ages of 17 and 23; providing employment in national parks and forest areas

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

passed in 1933, this act approved government loans to farmers and paid them not to grow certain crops in order to increase the price of agricultural products

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

established in 1933, insured bank deposits up to $100,000 in the event of bank failures

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)

passed in 1933, sought to increase industrial prices and prevent Us business failures

Public Works Administration (PWA)

this agency began a number of public works such as the construction of bridges, highways, and dams

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