a reference to something literary, mythological, or historical that the author assumes the reader will recognize
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
a similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them
the direct opposite, a sharp contrast
a concise statement that expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance
a figure of speech in which one directly addresses an absent or imaginary person, or some abstraction
The non- literal, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning. may involve ideas, emotions, or attitudes
strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color (Example: the denotation of a knife would be a utensil used to cut; the connotation of a knife might be fear, violence, anger)
means "teaching" have the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles
"good speech" a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept. Example: "earthly remains" rather than "corpse"
"sermon" includes any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice
an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language
a type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses. Front loaded
Substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it Example: "the white House declared" rather than "the president declared"
phrases or sentences of a similar construction/meaning placed side by side, balancing each other
a complex sentence in which the main clause comes last and is preceded by the subordinate clause, it is end- loaded
bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something. It may use verbal irony as a device.
A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and conventions for reform or ridicule. best seen as a style of writing rather than a purpose for writing
a three-part deductive argument in which a conclusion is based on a major premise and a minor premise ("All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.")
the combination of separate parts into a unified whole, Example: "Taste the pain" in the Red Hot Chili Peppers
the manner in which words are arranged into sentences, The way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences.
the opposite of exaggeration. It is a technique for developing irony and/or humor where one writes or says less than intended.