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63 terms

AP Psychology Human Development

STUDY
PLAY
Accommodate
oblige or help someone; adjust or bring into harmony; adapt; make enough space for; ADJ. accommodative; CF. accomodating: helpful and obliging
Adolescence
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
Alzheimer's Disease
an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning
Asperger Syndrome
a childhood disorder at the high-functioning end of the autistic spectrum; characterized by impaired social interest and skills and restricted interests
Assimilate
absorb; take (food) into the body and digest it; understand (knowledge) completely and be able to use properly; cause to become homogeneous (the people of a country or race in the wasy of behaving or thinking)
Attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Authoritarian Parents
parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish misbehavior, and value obedience to authority
Authoritative Parents
parents who set high but realistic and reasonable standards, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence
Autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
Basic Trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
Brain Development in Infants
Brain development unfolds through maturation—a biologically programmed growth process. In humans, at birth, the brain is immature, but as the child matures, neural networks grow increasingly more complex. As they do, the infant's capabilities surge...
Characteristics of Emerging Adults
1. identity exploration
2. a stage of instability
3. self focused
4. feelings of transition
5. stage of possibilities
Cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Concrete Operational Stage
Piagets Theory- the stage of cognitive development during which children gain mental opperations to think logically
Conception
union of an ovum and sperm, resulting in the beginning of a pregnancy
Conservation
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Continuity and Stages
Is development a gradual, continuous process like riding an escalator, or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder
Critical Period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
Cross Sectional Studies
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
Crystalized Intelligence
type of intelligence which includes accumulated knowledge and verbal skills, that INCREASES WITH AGE
Dementia
a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes
Deprived Attachment
no attachment, kids are withdrawn, frightened, unable to develop speech (usually abusive parents)
ex: charles manson
Developmental Psychologists
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Egocentric
The thinking in the preoperational stage of cognitive development where children believe everyone sees the world fro the same perspective as he or she does.
Embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
Erik Erikson
neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
a medical condition in which body deformation or facial development or mental ability of a fetus is impaired because the mother drank alcohol while pregnant
Fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
Fluid Intellegence
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
Formal Operational in Adolecence
The brain is not fully developed thus cannot make just actions without knowing about consequences
Formal Operational Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
Habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner
Harry Harlow's Monkey Experiment
the monkeys could chose between 2 artificial mothers: one was foam covered in terry cloth, the other was a hard metal cage but it held a bottle attached for feeding. The monkey would only leave the terrycloth mother when they got too hungry, and quickly returned to that mother.
Identity and Adolescence
Ones sense of self, according to Erikson an adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing adn integrating various roles
Imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
Insecure Attachment
A pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return
Jean Piaget
Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation
Lawrence Kohlberg
moral development; presented boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?
Longitudinal Study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
Maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
Memory in Infants
Rovee-Collier study
tied a string to infant's foot connected to something that moves
first measure baseline kicking
then learning phase: attach to mobile, moves when infant kicks, at first, infant is still and randomly moves, then get into it and they learn they are making it move and they start kicking a lot
memory test: come back after a period of time (48 hrs - 2 weeks) attach to mobile and they immediately kick -- infant remembers the event and how to make it move
~6 weeks later: come back and attach - they are back at baseline
then give infant a memory cue and come back the next day and they kick a lot again
Menarche
the first occurrence of menstruation in a woman
Menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
Motor Development in Infants
Motor Development milestones are the same throughout the world but babies reach them at differnt ages.
Object Perminance
The Piagetian term for one of an infant's most important accomplishments: understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard or touched
Permissive parents
Parenting style consisting of very few rules and allowing children to make most decisions and control their own behavior.
Postconventional Morality
third level of kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the person's behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the individual and that may be in disagreement with accepted social norms
Preconventional Morality
first level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior
Primary Sex Characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
Prospective Memory
remembering to do things in the future
Puberty
period when secondary sex characteristics develop and the ability to reproduce sexually begins
Rooting Reflex
reflex consisting of head-turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of the mouth of cheek
Schemas
conceptual frameworks a person uses to make sense of the world
Secure Attachment
Infants use the mother as a home base from which to explore when all is well, but seek physical comfort and consolation from her if frightened or threatened
Secondary Sex Characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
Self Concept
the mental picture people have of themselves; their opinion about themselves
Sensorimotor stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
Social Clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
Stranger Anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
Stablility and Change
A child needs an enviroment that is stable and will adapt to change
Teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Theory of Mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states -- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
Zygotes
the fertilized egg-> enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo