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History of Civilization Ch. 22 Sect. 2

"Miracle on the Marne"

Unexpected event in which French forces stopped the German advance

Henri Petain

Commander of Verdun's defenders who vowed: "They shall not pass!"


A nickname for British soldiers

Somme River

Where did the British launch a massive offensive against the Germans in an attempt to relieve the pressure at Verdun

Paul von Hindenburg and Erich von Ludendorff

Who did Kaiser Wilhelm II appoint as generals following the Somme offensive

Russian Revolution

Event in Russia during March 1917 in which mutinous soldiers forced the czar to abdicate, and a Provisional Government was established

Vladimir Lenin

Who led the Communist revolutionaries in the Bolshevik Revolution

Bolshevik Revolution

Russian event in which the Provisional Government was overthrown and the Communist dictatorship was established

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Treaty Vladimir Lenin signed which withdrew Russia from the war

T. E. Lawrence

British colonel who led Arab revolts against Turkish rule in the Arabian Peninsula

Edmund Allenby

General who led the British and Australian troops to capture Jerusalem in December 1917

Gallipoli Campaign

The largest British offensive in the East

Winston Churchill

England's First Lord of the Admiralty who planned the Gallipoli Campaign


British luxury line which was one of the first victims of submarine warfare


What new weapon did the Germans use to get around the British naval blockade

Battle of Jutland

What was the most important naval battle of the war


Pilots who shot down at least five enemy aircraft

Manfred von Richthofen

Also known as the "Red Baron"

Manfred von Richthofen and Eddie Rickenbacker

Two famous "aces" of WWI

Zimmermann Note

Document proposing that Mexico and Germany form an alliance if the United States entered the war

Woodrow Wilson

U.S. President who proposed to Congress that America should enter the war

April 6, 1917

Date Congress declared war on Germany

"Big Bertha"

One of Germany's famous long range guns


A nickname for the American soldiers

John J. ("Blackjack") Pershing

General who commanded the American Expeditionary Force

Ferdinand Foch

French Field Marshal who was the supreme commander of the Allied armies

Weimar Republic

Representative government which took the place of Kaiser Wilhelm II in Germany

Armistice Day

Now called Veterans Day in the U.S.

November 11, 1918

Date for the end of WWI

Armistice Day

November 11, 1918

Free will of man, reign of law, and providence of God

The three main things that have shaped history

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