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33 terms

Nervous System

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central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
Neurons
nerve cells
neuroglia
nerve glue
dendrites
branch from cell body that conducts impulses towards cell body
myelin sheath
covers the axon of some neurons
synapse
smalll space between the synaptic end fibers of one neuron and the dendrites of another
astrocytes
star shaped cells with numerous radiating fingers surrounding the outside
microglia
engulf debris, waste products and pathogens in the nerve tissue
afferent nerves
transmit impulses toward the brain and spinal cord
efferent nerves
transmit impulses away from the brain and spinal cord
vertebrae
protects spinal cord
meninges
membranes that protect and surround the cns
pia mater
innermost layer of the meninges
arachnoid membrane
provides cushioning effect for the central nervous system
dura mater
tough, white connective tissue that surrounds and supports the large venous channels carrying blood from the brain toward the heart
cerebrum
controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions and voluntary movements
fissures
deep groves
sulci
shallow grooves
thalamus
relay station for incoming and outgoing nerve impulses
hypothalamus
maintains homeostasis
oxytocin
manufactured in hypothalamus to help uterus contract during labor
cerebellum
essential in maintaining muscle tone and coordinating normal movement and balance
pons
aids in respiration, part of the brain stem
medulla oblongata
aids in blood pressure and heart rate regulation, part of the brain stem
spinal cord
pathway for impulses traveling to and from the brain
somatic nervous system
voluntary and can be consciously controlled
ganglia
cell bodies outside the cns that carries impulses to the involuntary muscles and glands
sympathetic
body's primitive, automatic, inborn response that prepares the body to "flight or fight"
parasympathetic
decreased heart rate
reflex
simplest form of nervous system
neuritis
inflammation of nerve
sciatica
characterized by pain radiating down buttocks, behind knee down to foot
bell's palsy
temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face