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Roots and mineral nutrition

exam one part 4
STUDY
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roots
anchor plant in soil or other medium
roots store
surplus sugars produced in photosynthesis which are transfered to the roots through phloem
taproot system
has one main root
lateral roots
extend on the sides of taproots (the main root)
fibrour root system
has many roots of similar size
ground tissues are
cortex and pith
vascular tissues are
xylem and phloem
epidermis
protects the root
root hairs
help absorb water and dissolved minerals
cirtex
majority of ground tissue with roots parenchyma cells, often store starch
Casparian strip
waterproofing strip composed of fat imper,eable to water and dissolved minerals
minerals are actively transported
through camer proteins in plasma membranes
water enters by osmosis
through aquaporins
pericycle
gives rise to lateral roots, lateral meristems
xylem
conducts water and dissolved minerals
phloem
conducts dissolved sugar
herbaceous eudicot root
xylem forms solid core in center of root
monocot root
center of pith surrounded by ring of alternating xylem and phloem bundles no vascular cambium or secondary growth
apoplast
along interconnected porous cell walls
symplast
from one cells cytoplasm to the next through plasmodesmata
gymnosperms and woody eudicots roots develope
secondary tissues (wood, bark)
result of activity of two lateral meristems
vascular cambium, cork cambium
Vascular cambium
produces secondary xylem (wood) and secondayry phoelm (inner bark)
cork cammbium
produces periderm (outer bark)
prop roots
develop from branches or vertical stem
arial "breathing roots"
help get oxygen to submerged roots
house rhizobia
nitrogen fixing bacteria
mycorrhizae
subterranean associations between roots and fungi mutuarly benificial
parent material
is broken into smaller and smaller particles by weathering processes
climate and organisms
work together in waethering rock
organisms in soil
plants algae fungi worms insects spiders bacteria
inorganic minerals
provide anchorage, essential minerals for plants
organic matter
increases soils water holding capacity releases essential minerals into soil as it decomposes
macro nutrialnts
carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen potassium calcium magnesium sulfer silicon
micronutrients
chlorine iron sodium zinc copper nickel