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80 terms

chordates

STUDY
PLAY
ventral
stomach
dorsal
back
anterior
top
posterior
bottom
urogenital opening
where the penis comes out
scrotum
external sack that houses the testes
genital papilla
this is the females' external genitalia located directly below the anus
umbilical
feeds the embryo nutrients
mammary papillae
nipples
anus
where waste products are disposed out of
mouth
the first part of chordate digestion
epiglottis/glottis
flap/opening
larynx
structure in the throat that contains the vocal cords
trachea
goes to the lungs
bronchi
2 branches of the trachea
bronchioles
attach to the alveoli
lungs
respitory organ; place where gasws are exchanged between the blood and inhaled air
alveoli
sacks at the end of the bronchioles
diaphram
used in respiration
tongue
used to push food to the hard palllete which puches it to be swallowed
saliva
digests carbohydrates
hard pallete
top of the mouth
soft pallete
helps keep food out of the nasal cavity
esophagus
tube connecting the mouth to the stomach
stomach
goes to the stomach
chime
Food when it is in the small intestine
liver (and gall bladder)
main job is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the bod and detoxicates it. It's main function is to collect and concentrate the bile that the body uses to digest fats
bile
2 purposes; emulsify fat and nuetralize acids when entering the duodenum
spleen
removes old red blood cells
pancreas
produces important enzymes and hormones that help break down foods
bicarbonate
neutralise or counteract acids
duodenum
where most chemical digestion takes place
small intestine
absorbs digests
villi and microvilli
folds in the small intestine
larg intestine
absorbs water
rectum
stores solid waste until it is released from the body
peristalsis
contractions of smooth muscles that provide the force that moves food through the esophagus toward the stomach
enzymes
protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions
carbohydrates -->
sugars
proteins -->
amino acids
fats -->
carbon chains
HCI Acid (hydrochloric acid)
a strong acid that helps to break down food
Mesenteries
tissue layer that holds the intestines together
renal artery
carries blood from aorta to kidney
renal vein
blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart
kidneys
an organ of excretion that seperates wastes and excess water from the blood
ureters
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urinary bladder
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
urethra
tube through which urine leaves the body
heart
hollow muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body
superior vena cava
Carries blood from upper regions of the body to right atrium
inferior vene cava
vein collects blood from the lower portion of the body and carries it to the heart.
aorta
artery that carries blood directly from the heart to the rest of the body
pulmonary artery
carries deoxygentated blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary vein
any of four veins that carry arterial blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
right atrium
The upper right chamber of the heart, where deoxygenated blood is received from the vena cava and then sent to the right ventricle.
left atrium
the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
right ventricle
the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk
left ventricle
the chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
tricuspid valve
valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
bicuspid valve (mitral valve)
between left atrium and ventricle
chordate tendonae
string attach the valve pull the valve open
semiluner valves
permits blood to be forced into the arteries prevents backflow of blood from arteries to ventricles
coronary artery
the artery that branches from the aorta to supply blood to the heart
arteries
large blood vessel that carries blodd away from the heart to the tissues of the body
veins
blood vessel that carries blood from the body back to the heart
capillaries
smallest blood vessel; bring nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbs carbon dioxide and wast produsts
lymph nodes
organs that filter lymph and play an important role in the body's defense
lymph
fluid that is filtered out of the blood
4 characteristics of a chordate
dorsal hollow nerv cord
notochord
pharyngeal pouches
post-anal tail
3 subphyla
urochordata
tunicata
vertebrata
6 classes of vertebrates
bony fish
cartilagenous fish
amphibians
reptiles
birds
mammals
evolutionary cladogram
a diagram showing evolution with a lines coming out of main line from a common ancestor
convergent evolution
process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similiar enviroments
endotherm
warm blooded
ectotherm
cold blooded
amniotic egg
gave egg a shell
lung fish
has gill and lungs and can breathe through its skin
coelacanth
has lobbed fins (almost like arms)
mud skipper
has gills and lungs and brethes through its skin