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Marketing - Chapter 12 Managing Services
Terms in this set (24)
Describe four unique elements of services
The four unique elements of services - the four i's of services - are intangibility, inconsistency, inseparability, and inventory. Intangibility refers to the tendency of services to be a performance that cannot be held or touched. Inconsistency is a characteristic of services because they depend on people to deliver them, and people vary in their capabilities and in their day to day performance. Inseparability refers to the difficulty of separating the deliverer of the service (hair stylist) from the service itself (haircut). And services are produced and consumed simultaneously, requiring the consumer to be present for both the production and consumption processes. Inventory refers to the need to have service production capability when there is service demand
Explain the service continuum
Many organizations do not market pure services or pure goods. In general, companies market products that have tangible and intangible characteristics. As companies look at what they bring to market, there is a range from the tangible to the intangible or good-dominant to service-dominant offerings, referred to as a service continuum.
Understand how consumers purchase services
Because services are intangible, pre-purchase evaluation is difficult for consumers. To choose a service, consumers use search, experience, and credence qualities , consumers often turn to personal sources of information, such as early adopters, opinion leaders, and reference group members, during the purchase decision process.
Develop a customer contact audit to understand the service purchasing process
a customer contact audit is a flow chart of the points of interaction between a consumer and a service provider. The interactions identified in the contact audit can help better understand the purchasing purchase and help create and deliver better services that ensure a satisfying experience for the customer.
Understand how customers evaluate the services they have purchased
Once the consumer tries a service, it is evaluated by comparing expectations with the actual service experience on five dimensions of service quality: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. Differences between expectations and experience are identified through gap analysis
Explain the special nature of the marketing mix for services: the seven Ps of services marketing
In addition to the traditional marketing mix (the four Ps) mentioned frequently throughout this text, the distinctive nature of services require that other variables be effectively managed by services marketers. These include people, physical evidence, and process. Collectively, the marketing mix for services is referred to as the seven Ps of services marketing. Many services depend on people to create and deliver services, and thus people must be hired, trained, and motivated correctly. The physical environment (physical evidence) where the services are created must be managed to convey the proper impression to the customer. The process by which services are created and delivered must also be managed effectively in order for customers to receive the service in a timely and appropriate manner. And, the process must effectively manage the capacity of the service system (capacity management).
intangible activities, benefits, or satisfactions that an organization provides to consumers in exchange for money or something else of value
four i's of services
four unique elements to services, intangibility, inconsistency, inseparability, and inventory
idle production capacity
when the service provider is available but there is no demand
a range form the tangible to the intangible or goods-dominant to service-dominant offerings available in the marketplace
customer contact audit
a flow chart of the points of interaction between consumer and service provider
an evaluation tool that compares expectations about a service offering to the actual experience a consumer has with the service
seven Ps of services marketing
product, price, place, and promotion, as well as people, physical evidence, and process that constitute the services-marketing mix
the notion that in order for a service organization to serve its customers well, it must care for and treat its employees like valued customers
making service capacity as productive as possible without compromising service quality
charging different prices during different times of the day or days of the week to reflect variations in demand for the service
What are the four I's of services?
Intangibility, Inconsistency, Inseparability, Inventory
Would inventory carrying costs for an accounting firm with certified public accountants be: a) high, b) medium, or c) low?
To eliminate service inconsistencies, companies rely on _____ and _____
What are the differences between search, experience, and credence properties?
Search properties can be determined before purchase, experience properties can only be assessed during or after consumption. Credence properties may be impossible to evaluate even after purchase and consumption
Hertz created its differential advantage at the points of _____ in their customer contact audit
Matching demand with capacity is the focus of ______ management
How does a movie theatre use off-peak pricing?
Movie theatres reduce prices for matinees and often for weekdays
What factors will influence future changes in services?
Deregulation and technological development
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