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What is the largest single body component?


Fluid compartments fall into these two categories. (What fraction is in each?)

1. Intracellular 2/3
2. Extracellular 1/3

Extracellular fluid is further broken down into...

Interstitial Fluid- 3/4
Plasma- 1/4
Other: blood, lymph, adipose, digestive tract

How much water makes up the adult human body? A babies body?

Adult: 55%
Baby: 80%

Normal fluid intake is acquired through:

- Food/Liquid
- Metabolism

Normal fluid loss is lost through:

- Sweat
- Urine
- Defecation
- Exhalation

Which hormones regulate Na+ and Cl-?

- Angiotensin II (dehydration)
- Aldosterone (dehydration)
- Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (overhydration)

Angiotensin II and Aldosterone cause:

- Increased tubular reabsorption of Na+ & Cl-
- Increased water by osmosis
- Increase BV
- Decrease GFR

Atrial natriuretic peptide ANP promotes:

- Increased secretion of Na+ & Cl-
- Decreased water by osmosis
- Decreased BV
- Increase GFR

Which hormone also regulates water loss directly? & how?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)- by increasing the permeability of the collecting ducts to water by promoting insertion of aquaporin-2 into the principle cells

What is created when electrolytes dissolve and dissociate?


What are the four functions of ions?

1. Control osmosis among fluid compartments
2. Conduct electricity
3. Serve as cofactors
4. Acid/Base

Osmotic pressure by proteins on either side of the capillary membrane is called...? What other force is involved?

- Oncotic pressure
- hydrostatic forces

How do you determine the net movement of fluids?

Forces favoring flitration - Forces opposing filtration

What is it called what excess interstitial fluid collects- causing swelling in the tissues?


What are the most important causes of edema?

- High BP (excess ions)
- Blockage of lymph flow
- Decreased plasma protein concentration
- Increased capillary permeability

What do metabolic reactions often produce a large excess of?


What helps regulate the pH of the systemic arterial blood, in a healthy person? = 7.35-7.45

- Chemical buffers
- Lungs
- Kidneys

How do chemical buffers, lungs and kidneys regulate pH?

Chemical buffers- act quickly to temporarily bind excess H+ or OH-
Lungs- change the rate and depth of breathing, CO2 is exhaled or retained & blood pH is corrected
Kidneys- excretion/reabsorption of acidic ions or basic ions, slowest mechanism, but only way to eliminate acids

What is it called and what happens when too CO2 is accumulated (Hypoventilation)?

"Respiratory acidosis" - when the blood is too acidic, causes shortness of breath, asthma, bronchitis

What causes metabolic acidosis?

ketoacidosis (diabetic, starvation diet), aspirin overdose; blood is too acidic

What is respiratory alkalosis?

Decreased CO2 = hyperventilation

What is metabolic alkalosis?

Losing acids- very RARE!

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