as the historic movement of Africans and their descendants to places throughout the world—predominantly to the Americas, and also to Europe, the Middle East, and other places around the globe. It also has been historically applied in particular to the descendants of the Africans who were enslaved and shipped to the Americas by way of the Atlantic slave trade, with the largest population in Brazil
are a volcanic group of ten small volcanic islands in the Banda Sea, about 140 km (87 mi) south of Seram Island and about 2,000 km (1,243 mi) east of Java, and are part of the Indonesian province of Maluku. The main town and administrative Centre is Bandanaira, located on the island of the same name. They rise out of 4-6 km Deep Ocean and have a total land area of approximately 180 km2. They have a population of about 15,000. Until the mid-19th century the Banda Islands were the world's only source of the spices nutmeg and mace, produced from the nutmeg tree
officially the Republic of Benin is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Togo to the west, by Nigeria to the east and by Burkina Faso and Niger to the north. A majority of the population live on its small southern coastline on the Bight of Benin Benin is a tropical, sub-Saharan nation, highly dependent on agriculture, with substantial employment and income arising from subsistence farming.
British East India Company
was an English joint-stock company formed for pursuing trade with the East Indies but which ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent. The Company was granted a Royal Charter in 1599, making it the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies. Shares of the company were owned by wealthy merchants and aristocrats. The government owned no shares and had only indirect control. The Company operated its own large army with which it controlled major portions of India.
Dutch East Indian Company
as a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants. Among its founding fathers was Willem Usselincx (1567-1647). On June 2, 1621, it was granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the West Indies (meaning the Caribbean) by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and given jurisdiction over the African slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America. The area where the company could operate consisted of West Africa (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Cape of Good Hope) and the Americas, which included the Pacific Ocean and the eastern part of New Guinea. The intended purpose of the charter was to eliminate competition, particularly Spanish or Portuguese, between the various trading posts established by the merchant
was a naval trade license or pass issued by the Portuguese in the Indian ocean during the sixteenth century (circa 1502-1750), under the rule of the Portuguese empire. It shared similarities with the British navicert system of 1939-45. Its name could have derived from the Arabic "qirtas" and may have had a previous use
was a country in West Africa in what is now the Republic of Benin. The Kingdom of Dahomey was a powerful West African state that was founded in the seventeenth century and survived until 1894. From 1894 until 1960 Dahomey was a part of French West Africa. The independent Republic of Dahomey existed from 1960 to 1975. In 1975, the country was re-named "The People's Republic of Benin" after the Bight of Benin (not the unrelated historical Kingdom of Benin) since "Benin," unlike "Dahomey," was deemed politically neutral for all ethnic groups in the state
is a generic term referring to the powerful territorial lords, in pre-modern Japan who ruled most of the country from their vast, hereditary land holdings. Subordinate only to the shogun, daimyo were the most powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan.
he Wyandot (also called Huron) is indigenous peoples of North America, known in their native language of the Iroquoian family as the Wendat. The pre-contact people formed by the 15th century in the area of the north shore of present-day Lake Ontario, before migrating to Georgian Bay. It was in their later location that they first encountered the explorer Samuel de Champlain in 1615
Indian Ocean commercial network
The massive, interconnected web of commerce inpremodern times between the lands that bordered on the Indian Ocean (including East Asia, India, and Southeast Asia); the network was badly disrupted by Portuguese intrusion beginning around 1500
Little Ice Age
period of cooling temperatures and harsh winters that lasted for much of the early modern era.
Portuguese mariner who commanded the first European (Spanish) fleet to circumnavigate the globe (1519-1521).
Capital of the Spanish Philippines and a major multicultural trade city that already had a population of more than 40,000 by 1600
name commonly given to the journey across the Atlantic undertaken by African slaves being shipped to the Americas
Piece of eight
Standard Spanish coin that became a medium of exchange in North America, Europe, India, Russia, and West Africa as well as in the Spanish Empire; so-called because it was worth 8 reales
City that developed high in the Andes (in present-day Bolivia) at the site of the world's largest silver mind and that became the largest city in the Americas, with a population of some 160,000 in the 1570s.
Term often used, along with "specie drain", to describe the siphoning of money from Europe to pay for the luxury products of the East, a process exacerbated by the fact that Europe had few trade goods that were desirable in Eastern markets; eventually, the bulk of the world's silver supply made its way to China.
Nickname used in the early modern period for animal furs, highly valued for their warmth and as symbols of elite status; in several regions, the fur trade generated massive wealth for those engaged in it
An archipelago of pacific islands colonized by Spain in a relatively bloodless process that extended for the century or so after 1565, a process accompanied by a major effort at evangelization; the Spanish named them the Philippine Islands in honor of King Philip II of Spain
Military rulers of Japan who successfully unified Japan politically by the early seventeenth century and established a "closed door" policy toward European encroachments.