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deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
inner part of uterine wall after 2 weeks to to months, during this period organs begin to form, heart begins to beat, liver begins to make red blood cells
9 weeks to birth, looking more like a human, organs are developed enough that premature babies have a good chance outside the womb
fetal alcohol syndrome
marked by a small misproportioned head lifelong abnormalities, leading cause of mental retardation
the biological growth process that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience lack of complex neural pathways helps explain infantile amnesia
the development of the brain area allows for increased physical coordination, most babies roll over before they sit up, crawl before they walk
he worked for the french government developming questions for binets intelligence test, noticed when children answered incorrectly they often gave very similar incorrect answers which led to his belief that there are stages
the stage that is characterized by learning to coordinate sensation and perception with motor activity, infants begin to realize that their physical movements and the results they sense and perceive are related, before the age of 6 months. 0-2
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived (in senso stage)
the stage that starts when children start to use words and symbols to represent objects
law of conservation
key properties of substances such as weight volume and # stay the same even if their shape is changed (not understood by children in preop stage)
the stage that reasoning expands from concrete to abstract, realize that ideas can be classified mentally just as objects can, algebra and geometry can be understood, capable of dealing with hypothetical situations, understand there may be more than 1 solution to a problem, (12-adult)
theory of mind
begin to form this in preop. ideas about their own and others mental states about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
concrete operational stage
begin to show early signs of adult thinking, but only when thinking about objects, not abstract ideas. able to focus on 2 dimensions of a problem at a time. therefore, understand law of conservation. learn to see the world from others perspective
fearof strangers that infants display beginning at about 8 months, by this age have schema for familiar faces, unfamiliar upset child
an attachment where a child plays comfortably, happily explore their environment in their mothers presence, get distressed when mother leaves them, run to her when she return
an attachment where child is less likely to explore environment, very clingy, when mother leaves they cry loudly and remain upset to seem indifferent to their mother going and returning
our need to touch and be touched by something soft and warm true source of attachment
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper development
process by which certain animals from immediate attachments during a critical period early in life
1 of ainsworths 3 attachment styles: plays and explores with moth pres, upset when she leaves quickly calmed by her return. sensitive and responsive mothers
anxious when mom is near, extreme protest when she leaves but are not really comforted when she returns.
a sense of ones identity and personal worth, develops by age 12, view of themselves affect their actions
both demanding and responsive, set - enforce and explain rules so child understands the reasoning behind them, encourages open discussion
the transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence
primary sex characteristics
body structure that make sexual reproduction happen, ovaries, testes, external glands
level of kohlbergs moral ladder, morality of abstract principles to affirm agreed upon rights and personal ethical principles (up to 9)
level of kohlbergs moral ladder: morality of law and social rules to gain approval or avoid disapproval (adulthood)
level of kohlbergs moral ladder: morality of self interest to avoid punishment or gain concrete reward
STAGE of kohlbergs moral good boy/ girl orientation, maintain roles to fulfill social roles (golden rule)
STAGE of kohlbergs moral: social contract orientation, society must transcend individual needs- uphold law and rules to maintain a functioning society
STAGE of kohlbergs moral : human individual rights so moral reasoning is based on saving individual human rights - right to live
STAGE of kohlbergs moral : looking at individuals but knowing unique situations that one can not make judgements about
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