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88 terms

ch 3 and 4 developmental psychology

STUDY
PLAY
chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
heritability
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
molecular genetics
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
memes
self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person
x chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child
y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
role
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
gender role
the set of behaviors that society considers appropriate for each sex
gender identity
one's sense of being male or female
gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
gender - typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
zygote
fertilized egg, conception to 2 weeks. attaches to uterine wall after 10 days
embryo
inner part of uterine wall after 2 weeks to to months, during this period organs begin to form, heart begins to beat, liver begins to make red blood cells
teratogens
chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus through the placental screen
fetus
9 weeks to birth, looking more like a human, organs are developed enough that premature babies have a good chance outside the womb
fetal alcohol syndrome
marked by a small misproportioned head lifelong abnormalities, leading cause of mental retardation
rooting reflex
tendency to open mouth and search for nipple when touched on the cheek
preferences
human voices and faces smell and sound of mother
maturation
the biological growth process that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience lack of complex neural pathways helps explain infantile amnesia
motor development
the development of the brain area allows for increased physical coordination, most babies roll over before they sit up, crawl before they walk
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
piaget
who was the key researcher on cognitive development?
paiget
he worked for the french government developming questions for binets intelligence test, noticed when children answered incorrectly they often gave very similar incorrect answers which led to his belief that there are stages
schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
assimilation
process by which new information is placed into existing categories
accommodation
a change brought about because of new information
sensorimotor preoperational formal operational concrete operational
list all of paigets stages
baby mathematics
shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare longer
sensorimotor
the stage that is characterized by learning to coordinate sensation and perception with motor activity, infants begin to realize that their physical movements and the results they sense and perceive are related, before the age of 6 months. 0-2
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived (in senso stage)
preoperational
the stage that starts when children start to use words and symbols to represent objects
law of conservation
key properties of substances such as weight volume and # stay the same even if their shape is changed (not understood by children in preop stage)
egocentric
the inability to see another persons point of view (in preop stage)
animistic
children during preop stage. they think objects are alive or have humal qualities
artificialistic
during preop. they think natural occuring events are caused by humans
formal operational
the stage that reasoning expands from concrete to abstract, realize that ideas can be classified mentally just as objects can, algebra and geometry can be understood, capable of dealing with hypothetical situations, understand there may be more than 1 solution to a problem, (12-adult)
theory of mind
begin to form this in preop. ideas about their own and others mental states about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
concrete operational stage
begin to show early signs of adult thinking, but only when thinking about objects, not abstract ideas. able to focus on 2 dimensions of a problem at a time. therefore, understand law of conservation. learn to see the world from others perspective
stranger anxiety
fearof strangers that infants display beginning at about 8 months, by this age have schema for familiar faces, unfamiliar upset child
attachment
major issua in a childhood social development, an emotional tie with another person
secure attachment
an attachment where a child plays comfortably, happily explore their environment in their mothers presence, get distressed when mother leaves them, run to her when she return
insecure attachment
an attachment where child is less likely to explore environment, very clingy, when mother leaves they cry loudly and remain upset to seem indifferent to their mother going and returning
contact comfort
our need to touch and be touched by something soft and warm true source of attachment
ainsworth
who did the strange situation?
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper development
imprinting
process by which certain animals from immediate attachments during a critical period early in life
secure
1 of ainsworths 3 attachment styles: plays and explores with moth pres, upset when she leaves quickly calmed by her return. sensitive and responsive mothers
anxious ambivalent
anxious when mom is near, extreme protest when she leaves but are not really comforted when she returns.
avoidant attachment
seek little contact with mom and is no distressed when she leaves
basic trust
a sense that the world is predictable and reliable
self concept
a sense of ones identity and personal worth, develops by age 12, view of themselves affect their actions
authoritarian
parents impose rules and expect obedience "dont interrupt" Because i said so
permissive
submit to childrens desires, make few damands us little punishment
authoritative
both demanding and responsive, set - enforce and explain rules so child understands the reasoning behind them, encourages open discussion
adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence
puberty
the period of sexual maturation when a person becomes capable of reproduction
primary sex characteristics
body structure that make sexual reproduction happen, ovaries, testes, external glands
secondary sex characteristics
non-reproductive, breasts and hips, deep voice, body hair
menarche
first menstrual period
metacognition
thinking about thinking
postconventional
level of kohlbergs moral ladder, morality of abstract principles to affirm agreed upon rights and personal ethical principles (up to 9)
conventional
level of kohlbergs moral ladder: morality of law and social rules to gain approval or avoid disapproval (adulthood)
preconventional
level of kohlbergs moral ladder: morality of self interest to avoid punishment or gain concrete reward
stage 1
STAGE of kohlbergs moral: avoid punishment
stage 2
STAGE of kohlbergs moral: gain reward
stage 3
STAGE of kohlbergs moral good boy/ girl orientation, maintain roles to fulfill social roles (golden rule)
stage 4
STAGE of kohlbergs moral: social contract orientation, society must transcend individual needs- uphold law and rules to maintain a functioning society
stage 5
STAGE of kohlbergs moral : human individual rights so moral reasoning is based on saving individual human rights - right to live
stage 6
STAGE of kohlbergs moral : looking at individuals but knowing unique situations that one can not make judgements about
infancy
erikson stages: trust vs mistrust
toddler
erikson stages: autonomy vs shame and doubt (2nd year)
preschooler
erikson stages: initiative vs. guilt (3-5)
elementary
erikson stages: competence vs. inferiority 6- puberty)
adolescence
erikson stages: identity vs role confusion (teens - 20's_
young adult
erikson stages: intimacy vs. isolation (20's- 40s) .. more with men
middle adult
erikson stages: generatively vs stagnation (40s - 60s)
late adult
erikson stages: integrity vs despair (late 60s -)
identity
issue of adolescence
intimacy
ability to form close loving realtionships
gilligan
believed intimacy v despair applied more to men because they are more individualistic
male answer syndrome
men are likely to guess or make up answers than to admit they dont know
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events