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Guyton- Ch. 33
Terms in this set (85)
what are leukocytes?
white blood cells
What are the two ways leukocytes prevent disease?
2) form antibodies and lymphocytes
two places where leukocytes are formed
1) partially in bone marrow
2) partially in lymph tissue
leukocytes formed partially in bone marrow
granulocytes, monocytes, and some lymphocytes
leukocytes formed partially in lymph tissue
lymphocytes and plasma cells
leukocytes are transported to where?
areas of infection and inflammation
6 types of white blood cells (leukocytes)
6) occasionally plasma cells
which leukocytes are polymorphonuclear (mutliple nuclei) and are granulocytes?
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
which leukocytes are phagocytes?
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes
which leukocytes function in the immune system?
lymphocytes and plasma cells
what are platelets and what do they do?
they are fragments of megakaryocytes found in bone marrow and activate blood clotting mechanism
percentages of each type of leukocytes
1) neutrophils- 62%
2) eosinophils- 2.3%
3) basophils- 0.4%
4) monocytes- 5.3%
5) lymphocytes- 30%
most common leukocytes
neutrophils and lymphocytes
least common leukocyte
about how many white blood cells per microliter of blood in an adult
about 7,000 WBC/microliter of blood
about how many platelets per microliter of blood
about 300,000 platelets/microliter of blood
what are the two lineages of WBC?
1) myelocytic (begins with myeloblast)
2) lymphocytic (begins with lymphoblast)
about how many times as many WBCs stored in in bone marrow than circulating in the body?
about 3x as many WBCs stored in in bone marrow than circulating in the body
about how many days supply of WBC?
6 days supply
megakaryocytes are formed where?
are formed in the bone marrow
another name for platelets
how long do granulocytes live after being released from bone?
1) 4-8 hours! circulating in blood
2) 4-5 days! in tissues where they are needed
how long do monocytes live in blood?
what do monocytes become once they are in tissues?
tissue macrophages (swell to a larger size)
how long do tissue macrophages live?
can live for months unless destroyed while performing their phagocytic funtions
how long do lymphocytes live?
can live for weeks or months depending on how much they are needed
platelets are replaced once every...
replaced every 10 days
how many platelets formed for each microliter of blood?
30,000 formed for each microliter of blood
two main leukocytes that attack harmful substances
neutrophils and tissue macrophages
what is diapedesis?
pores of blood capillaries where neutrophils and monocytes squeeze through
what leukocytes use ameboid movement?
neutrophils and macrophages
white blood cells are attracted to inflamed tissue areas by...
what is chemotaxis?
when tissues become inflamed and WBCs go towards them
products that can cause chemotaxis
1) bacterial/ viral toxins
2) degenerative products of inflamed tissues
3) products of the "complement complex
4) reaction products caused by plasma clotting
chemotaxis is effective up to how many micrometers away from tissue?
effective up to 100 micrometers away (no tissue area more than 50 micrometers away from capillary so chemotaxis can easily send signals to WBC)
what is phagocytosis?
3 selective procedures phagocytosis depends on
1) rough surface
2) no protective protein coat
3) immune system develops antibodies against infectious agents
what is opsonization?
C3 molecules attach to phagocyte membrane, and initiate phagocytosis
how many bacteria can neutrophils phagocytize before dying?
steps for phagocytosis by neutrophils
1. neutrophil attaches to foreign particle
2. projects pseudopodia around particle which meet each other on opposite side and fuse
3. enclosed chamber forms free floating phagocytic vesicle
how many bacteria can macrophages phagocytize?
which phagocyte can engulf larger particles like red blood cells?
what does a phagocytic vesicle become?
becomes a digestive vesicle
abundant in lysosomes; digest foreign material
digest thick lipid membranes possessed by some bacteria like TB
kill bacteria when lysosmal enzymes fail to digest them
formed formed by enzymes in membrane of phagosome or peroxisome
types of oxidizing agents
superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl ions
a bacteria resistant to lysosomal digestion
macrophages stay attached to tissues until called upon to detach
combo of monocytes, mobile macrophages, fixed tissue macrphages, and few specialized endothelial cells in bone; this term more commonly used than monocyte-macrophage system
foreign particles go directly to ...
lymph nodes contain meshwork of sinuses lined by what?
order that lymph passes through
afferent lymphatics to nodal medulllary sinuses to efferent lymphatics to venous blood
phagocytize particles in alveoli
tissue macrophages that line liver sinusoids
difference between spleen and lymph nodes
spleen has blood flowin through it rather than lymph
way blood flows through spleen
small capillary in splenic pulp to cords of red pulp to venous sinuses
another line of defense if foreign material doesnt go into general circulation
spleen and bone marrow
characteristics of inflammation
1. vasodilation of blood vessels
2. increased permeability of capillaries
3. often clotting of fluid in interstitial spaces
4. migration of monocytes and granulocytes into tissue
5. swelling of tissue cells
tissue products that cause inflammation
histamine, bradykinin, serotinin, prostaglandins, reaction products of complement systsm, lymphokine
multiple substances released by T cells
first result of inflammation
"walling off effect" (area of injury is "walled off" from other tissues)
inflammation is super high so less chance of it spreading through body
less intense inflammation so more chance of it spreading though body
macrophage responses during inflammation/ lines of defense (in order)
1. Tissue macrophage
2. Neutrophil invasion of inflamed area
4. Second macrophage invasion into inflamed area
5. Increased production of granulocytes
6. Feedback control of macrophage and neutrophil responses
2nd line of defense
intacellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) in what line of defense
2nd line of defense (neutrophil invasion)
3rd line of defense
second macrophage invasion
5 dominant roles in control of macrophage response to inflammation
1. tumor necrosis factor (TNF
2. interleukin-1( IL-1)
3. granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)
4. granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)
5. monocyte-colony stimulating factor (MC-SF)
mix of dead tissue, neutrophils, macrophages, and tissue fluid
WBC that fights parasitic infections
major basic protein
highly larvacidal polypeptide released from eosinophils
similar to mast cells
involved in allergic reactions
has immunoglobulin E (IgE)
chemicals that basophils release
histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, heparin, slow reacting substance of anaphylasix, and lysosomal enzymes
condition in which bone marrow produces few white blood cells
drugs that can cause leukopenia
chloramphenicol, thiouracil, barbiturate hypnotics
condition where there is increase in white blood cells
two types of leukemia
1. lymphocytic leukemia
2. myelogenous leukemia
cancerous production of lymphoid cells
cancerous production of myelogenous cells in bone marrow
4 types of myelogenous leukemia
common effects of leukemia
1) development of infection
2) severe anemia
3) bleeding tendency caused by thrombocytopenia (lack of platelets)
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