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A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)

Lateran Treaty of 1929

1929 treaty between Pope Pius XI and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by which the Italian government recognized Vatican City as an independent, sovereign state for the first time since 1870, when the Papal States were seized (p. 175)


a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)


Germanic people seen as the master race

Third Reich

The Third German Empire, established by Adolf Hitler in the 1930s.

Night of the Long Knives

Purge of Nazi leaders by Adolf Hitler. Fearing that the paramilitary SA had become too powerful, Hitler ordered his elite SS guards to murder the organization's leaders, including Ernst Röhm. Also killed that night were hundreds of other perceived opponents of Hitler, including Kurt von Schleicher and Gregor Strasser.


the secret state police in Nazi Germany

Hitler Youth

Organizations set up under Hitler to train an educate German young people in Nazi beliefs


"fountain of life." Maternity homes for unmarried "Aryans" to give birth in secret.

Nuremberg Laws

Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.


Night of Broken Glass, Nov 9 1938 night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews & destroyed many jewish properties

Spanish Civil War

civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government

General Francisco Franco

Led the military in a revolt against the democratic government in Spain

Pablo Picasso

a Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes


Spanish town that Germans bombed into ruins, & Pablo Picasso's painting to convey the horrors of the Spanish civil war to a world audience

French Popular Front

anti-fascist coalition of forces consisting of liberals, socialist, and communists, led by Leon Blum

Leon Blum

Leader of the French socialist party Popular Front, made first and real attempt to deal with the economic and social problems

Manchuria, 1931

The Japanese invasion by the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan, beginning on September 19, 1931 immediately followed the Mukden Incident.

Haile Sellasie

Emperor of Ethiopia (1930-1974). After the Italian invasion of his country (1936), he fled to England, returned to Ethiopia with Allied troops (1941), and was restored to the throne. He was deposed in a military coup (1974).

Neville Chamberlain

British statesman who as Prime Minister pursued a policy of appeasement toward fascist Germany (1869-1940)


an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler

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