Substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water; pH less than 7
Minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction.
Specific place where a substrate binds on an enzyme.
Building block of proteins; carbon compound joined by peptide bonds
Building block of matter; contains subatomic particles: neutrons, protons, and electrons.
Substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water; ph greater than 7
A chemical that maintains the pH level within a specific (safe) range.
Organic compound containing Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in a ratio 1:2:1; include sugars and starches used for energy
Substance that speeds up a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy.
Energy-requiring process by which atoms or groups of atoms are changed into different substances.
Pure substance with unique properties; formed when two or more different elements combine.
strong chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons
Negatively charged particle that orbits an atom's nucleus.
Pure substance composed of only type of atom; cannot be broken down into another substance by physical or chemical means.
Protein that speeds up a biological reaction by lowering the amount of activation energy needed to start the reaction. (catalyst)
Weak bond formed by the attraction of opposite charges between a hydrogen atom and an oxygen atom
Atom that is negatively or positively charged because it has lost or gained one or more electrons.
chemical bond formed from an attraction between two oppositely charged atoms
Two or more atoms of the same element having different numbers of neutrons.
Organic molecule composed mostly of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen; fats, oils, and waxes
Large molecule formed by joining smaller organic molecules (monomers) together.
Combination of two or more different substances in which each substance keeps its individual characteristics; can have a uniform composition (homogeneous) or have distinct areas of substances (heterogeneous).
Compound whose atoms are held together by covalent bonds.
Particle without a charge in an atom's nucleus.
Complex organic macromolecule that stores genetic information. The "NA" in DNA and RNA.
A subunit (monomer) of nucleic acids made up of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
Center of an atom; contains neutrons and protons.
Measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution; indicates the relative strength of an acid or a base: an acidic solution has a pH value less than 7, a basic solution has a pH value greater than 7
Molecule with oppositely charged regions.
Large molecule formed from smaller repeating units (monomers) of identical, or nearly identical, compounds linked by covalent bonds.
Substance formed by a chemical reaction; located on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation.
Organic compound made of amino acids joined by peptide bonds; primary building block of organisms.
Positively charged particle in an atom's nucleus.
Substance that exists before a chemical reaction starts; located on the left side of the arrow in a chemical equation.
Substance dissolved in a solvent.
Homogeneous mixture formed when a substance (the solute) is dissolved in another substance (the solvent).
Substance in which another substance is dissolved.