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48 terms

Social Psychology Test 2

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Natural Selection
The evolutionary process by which heritable traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environments are passed to ensuing generations.
Evolutionary Psychology
The study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection.
Culture
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Norms
Standards for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior. (In a different sense of the word, norms also describe what most others do - what is normal).
Personal Space
The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. Its size depends on our familiarity with whoever is near us.
Gender
In psychology, the characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced, by which people define male and female.
Empathy
The vicarious experience of another's feelings; putting oneself in another's shoes.
Aggression
Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. In laboratory experiments, this might mean delivering electric shocks or saying something likely to hurt another's feelings.
Gender Role
A set of behavior expectations (norms) for males and females.
Androgynous
From andro (man) + gyn (woman) - thus mixing both masculine and feminine characteristics.
Interaction
A relationship in which the effect of one factor (such as biology) depends on another factor (such as environment).
Conformity
A change in behavior or belief as the result of real or imagined group presence.
Compliance
Conformity that involved publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request while privately disagreeing.
Obedience
Acting in accord with a direct order or command.
Acceptance
Conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure.
Autokinetic Phenomenon
Self (auto) motion (kinetic). The apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark.
Cohesiveness
A "we feeling"; the extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction for one another.
Normative Influence
Conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain acceptance.
Informational Influence
Conformity occurring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people.
Reactance
A motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom. Reactance arises when someone threatens our freedom of action.
Persuasion
The process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors.
Central Route to Persuasion
Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
Credibility
Believability. A credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy.
Sleep Effect
A delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective, as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it.
Attractiveness
Having qualities that appeal to an audience. An appealing communicator (often someone similar to the audience) is most persuasive on matters of subjective preference.
Primacy Effect
Other things being equal, information presented first usually has the most influence.
Recency Effect
Information presented last sometimes has the most influence. Recency effects are less common than primacy effects.
Channel of Communication
The way the message is delivered - whether face to face, in writing, on film, or in some other way.
Two-Step Flow of Communication
The process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others.
Need for Cognition
The motivation to think and analyze. Assessed by agreement with items such as "The notion of thinking abstractly is appealing to me" and disagreement with items such as "I only think as hard as I have to".
Cult (also called new religious movement)
A group typically characterized by (1) distinctive ritual and beliefs related to it devotion to a god or a person, (2) isolation from the surrounding "evil" culture, and (3) a charismatic leader. (A sect, by contrast, is a spinoff from a major religion).
Attitude Inoculation
Exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available.
Group
Two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as "us".
Co-Actors
Co-Participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity.
Social Facilitation
(1) Original meaning: the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present. (2) Current meaning: the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses in the presence of others.
Evaluation Apprehension
Concern for how others are evaluating us.
Social Loafing
The tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable.
Free Riders
People who benefit from the group but give little in return.
Deindividuation
Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.
Group Polarization
Group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of members' average tendency, not a split within the group.
Social Comparison
Evaluating one's opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others.
Pluralistic Ignorance
A false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding.
Groupthink
The mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.
Leadership
The process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group.
Task Leadership
Leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals.
Social Leadership
Leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.
Transformational Leadership
Leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence.