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Systems Planning 7 and 9
Terms in this set (68)
Three Fundamental Parts of User Interface
Navigation Mechanism,input mechanism, output mechanism
Human Computer Interaction, focused on making computers more usable
Ease of Use vs Ease of Learning
Novice users want ease of learning, frequent users want ease of use
one of the most important elements in ease of learning, ease of use, and aesthetics
Minimize user effort
most designers want to have no more than three mouse clicks from the starting menu
top to bottom, left to right (page 305)
refers to the ability of an interface to make the user aware of the information it contains with the least amount of effort by the user.
individual elements of data that are input or output
all forms and reports should contain one so that the age of the information is obvious
less is more, Less than 50% of page density is preferred. (less than 50% of the page should be occupied by information)
only one font should be used for the entire form or report and no more than two sizes on the form. Minimum 8 pt for most, minimum 10pt for older users, 12pt for on-screen fonts
designing the user interface with the users' level of computer experience in mind.
Ease of use
for experienced users
Ease of learning
for novice users
the MOST IMPORTANT factor in making a system simple to use, because it allows users to predict what will happen
Three Clicks Rule
users should be able to go from the start or main menu of a system to the information they want in no more than three mouse clicks or keystrokes
User Interface Design Process
5 Steps, jumping back and forth (not always sequential) Use Scenarios, Interface Structure design, interface standards design, interface design prototyping, interface evaluation. Cyclical process until all problems have been identified
outline of the steps that users perform to accomplish some part of their work - common path through a use case. (don't document all possible use scenarios within a use case, because you end up repeating the DFD)
Interface Structure Design
defines the basic components of the interface and how they work together to provide functionality to the users. Shows how all screens/forms/reports are related and how the user moves from one to another. Displayed in a Hierarchy
Interface Standards Design
basic design elements that are common across the individual screens, forms, & reports within the system. May be many per system
define how the interface will work. A concept from the real world used as a model for the computer system. Don't force it
defines the general appearance of all screens in the information system and the paper-based forms and reports that are used. Defines a standard placement order across pages
template specifies the names for the major interface objects, the fundamental building blocks of the system such as entities and data stores. Shopping Carts, etc.
template defines the navigation and command language style (menus) & grammar.
interface objects and actions, and their status will be represented through icons. They highlight important information. Blank page = new file, Diskette = save, etc.
Interface Design Prototyping
used to be a paper-based story board. A mockup or simulation of a computer screen, form, or report. It is used to show the users and programmers how the system will perform. Built with computer tools today. Three most common forms; story boarding, HTML, language prototyping
Paper based, hand drawn pictures of what the screens will look like and how they will flow from one screen to another. Simplest Technique
most common today, built with web pages to show fundamental parts of the system. Users can interact with the pages.
interface design prototype built in the actual language or tool that will be used to build the system. Longest and hardest to develop, but are exactly what the end product will look like.
examines the interface by comparing it to principles and standards of interface design. Weakest type of evaluation
a meeting conducted with end users present. Team presents prototype and talks them through the interface.
hands on w/ members of the project team.
Formal Usability Testing
done with commercial software, and large projects. Scientific and formal, expensive, and lengthy. Cameras and software in rooms of testing to record all tests, then user works without help. Requires one to two days and 5 to 10 users.
prevent mistakes, simplify recovery from mistakes, use consistent grammar order. Label commands appropriately, limit choices.
Object Action vs Action Object
the order in which a user chooses actions to perform and the objects to use
command language can be powerful but a burden on users.
Natural Language interfaces
are designed to understand the user's own language.
most common navigation system today, make menus broad and shallow rather than narrow and deep. One menu should contain no more than 8 items, two mouse clicks or key strokes. Hot Keys help navigate complex menus.
navigation that lets the user enter commands by working directly with interface objects. (Changing the sizes and positions of objects in MS powerpoint) Two Problems; users don't expect it and not all commands are intuitive
the way in which the system responds to a user and informs of status changes. (common types; Error, Confirmation, Acknowledgement, Delay, Help)
Goal of Input Design
capture accurate information for the system simply and easily. Two types, online processing and batch processing
(aka transaction processing) Each input item is entered into the system individually - usually at the same time as the event or transaction prompting the input. Used when it is important to have real time information (e.g. booking a flight)
all the inputs collected over some period of time are gathered together and entered into the system at one time in a batch. Hourly payrolls are done by batch processing. Non-real time information works with batch processing.
Capture Data at the Source
the most important principle of input design. Capture data in an electronic format at the original source or as close to it as possible. W/out this, it 1) duplicates work, 2) increases processing time 3) increases cost and probability of error
cost time and money, whether they are performed by the customer, user or trained data entry operator, important factor of input design.
text, numbers, selection box (check box, radio button, on screen list, drop down, combo, scroll bar)
necessary to ensure accuracy (aka edit checks) can take 6 forms; Completeness check, format check, range check, check digit check, consistency check, database check (table on page 334)
the goal is to present information to users so that they can accurately understand it with the least effort.
Understand Report Usage
First principle in designing reports. Find out how they are used. Real-time reports (accurate up to the minute, stocks) vs batch reports (gather historical information)
Manage Information Load
Most managers get too much information, not too little - provide all the information needed to support the task for which it was designed - only report relevant information
often subtle, can be introduced unintentionally. How data is sorted - use alphabetic, chronological, numeric value, etc. Have scales begin at zero to eliminate misleading information.
detail reports, summary reports, exception reports, turnaround documents, graphs. Two media types to present output are paper and electronic. Paper is inflexible, expensive and hard to duplicate, require supplies and storage, hard to move. Page 338
decides how the new system will operate
the determination of the overall system architecture consisting of a set of physical processing components, hardware, software, people, and the communication among them that satisfies the essential requirements
describes the technical details for building the system. Communication through design documents and physical process and data models
contains all of the design documents and conveys exactly what system the project team will implement
building a new system from scratch. Usually have highly specialized requirements. Use when business need is unique, functional and technical experience exists, a desire to build in-house skills, have a highly skilled manager and proven methodology, time frame is flexible.
use when business need is common, in-house functional experience exists, skills are not strategic, have a project manager who can coordinate, time frame is short.
a custom built add-on program that interfaces with the packaged application to handle special needs. Should be a last resort
process of building new systems by combing packaged software, existing legacy systems, and new software written to integrate these
hiring an external vendor, developer, service provider to create or supply the system. Use when business need is not core to the business, functional and technical experience does not exist, decision to outsource is strategic, have a highly skilled project manager that matches the scope of the deal, time frame is short or flexible.
Application service providers
outsourcing firms that supply software applications and/or service
Time and arrangements
a flexible deal where you agree to pay for whatever time and expense are needed to get the job done
an agreed on price with the outsourcer
outsourcer reaps some percentage of the completed system's benefits. Low risk
Request for proposal
document that solicits a formal proposal from a potential vendor
Request for information
shorter, less detailed request that is sent to potential venders. Sometimes used to determine which vendors have the capability to perform a service
combines several feasibility analyses into one matrix so that alternatives can be easily compared
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Systems Planning - Chapter 2
Systems Planning - Chapter 3
Systems Planning - Final (Ch. 5)
System planning and development
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