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27 terms

Music History Chapter 1 Terms and People

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lyre
plucked string instrument with a resonating sound-box, two arms, crossbar, and strings that run parallel to the soundboard and attach to the crossbar used in Ancient Mesopotamia, resembles a harp, used around 2500 B.C.E.
aulos
Ancient Greek reed instrument, usually played in pairs-had a mouthpiece for the reed
kithara
Ancient Greek instrument, a large lyre; also resembles a harp but was bigger and used in processions and sacred ceremonies; played by a standing musician also in the time of the Ancient Greeks around 2500 B.C.E.
genre
type or category of musical composition; word used since 2500 B.C.E. by the Ancient Greeks to describe music, for example sonata
monophony
consisting of a single unaccompanied melodic line; most music we have found from the Ancient Greeks was written this way, but it could have been performed differently; for example, we know that the singers would accompany themselves on lyre or harp
heterophony
music or a musical texture in which a melody is performed by two or more parts simultaneously in more than one way, for example, one voice performing it simply, and the other with embellishments; the ancient greeks may have played this way even though they wrote their music monophonically
harmonia
Ancient Greek term with multiple meaning including, the union of parts in an orderly whole, interval, scale type, and style of melody; exemplified the sounds and rhythms and was a very flexible concept. Also used in the time of the Ancient Greeks around 2500 B.C.E.
ethos
A moral and ethical character or way of being or behaving or a character, mood, or emotional effect of a certain tonos, mode, meter, or melody; in the time of the Ancient Greeks around 2500 B.C.E. the writers believed their music could affect the ethos of a person
doctrine of imitation
Aristotle's description of how music affected behavior; music that imitated a certain ethos aroused that ethos in the listener according to him
diastematic
Having to do with intervals, in diastematic motion, the voice moves between sustained pitches separated by discrete intervals; in a diastematic notation, the approximate intervals are indicated by relative height; the voices moves between sustained pitches separated by discrete intervals, used in the time of the ancient Greeks around 2500 B.C.E
scale
A series of three or more different pitches in ascending or descending order and arranged in a specific pattern; this established a firm basis for Greek Music, started with the Ancient Greeks
tetrachord
In Greek and medieval theory, a scale of four notes spanning a perfect fourth; outer notes stayed the same but the inner notes moved to form different intervals, as long as the outer notes didn't move it remained a tetrachord, used in ancient Greek music; Examples include diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic
genus
In ancient Greek music, adjective describing a tetrachord with two whole tones and one semitone; has the same outer notes as all the other types of tetrachord; used by the ancient Greeks
diatonic
In ancient Greek music, adjective describing a tetrashord with two whole tones and one semiton; has the same outer notes as all the other types of tetrachord; used by the ancient Greeks
chromatic
In ancient Greek music, adjective describing a tetrachord comprising a minor third and two semitones, or a melody that uses such tetrachords; has the same outer notes as a ll the other types of tetrachord; used by the ancient Greeks
enharmonic
In ancient Greek music, adjective describing a tetrachord comprising a major third and two quarter notes a melody that uses such tetrachords; has the same outer notes as all the other types of tetrachord; used by the ancient Greeks
conjunct and disjunct tetrachords
Conjunct tetrachord- In ancient Greek music, adjective same as the top note of the other. Used by the Ancient Greeks, if two tetrachords share a note then it is conjunct.Disjunct tetrachord-In ancient Greek music, adjective used to describe the relationship between two tetrachords when the bottom note of one is a whole tone above the top note of the other. If none of the notes match and the bottom note is a whole tone away from the top note of the other than it is a disjunct tetrachord of the Ancient Greek.
Greater Perfect System
In ancient Greek music, a system of tetrachords spanning two octaves. It includes four tetrachords plus an added lowest note. Used by the Ancient Greeks
tonos (tonoi)
Ancient Greek term used with different meanings by various writers; one meaning is a particular set of pitches within a certain range or region of the voice. Associated with character and mood. Used by the Ancient Greeks
Aristotle
philosopher-argued education should stress gymnastics and music
Ptolemy
leading astronomer of antiquity and important writer on music; used math in music
Cleonides
Important musical theorist and writer
Aristoxenus
pupil of Aristotle, wrote Harmonic Elements and Rhythmic Elements
Plato
philosopher argued education should stress gymnastics and music
Pythagoras
thought numbers were the key to the Universe and the music was inseparable from numbers
Enheduanna
earliest composer known by name
Euripedes
Wrote tragedies for Dionysian Festivals in Athens