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Top 40 Radio

another attempt to control the uncertainty of the marketplace, composed a list of songs to play repeatedly


record companies paid DJs to put their records into "heavy rotation"

New Technologies

magnetic tape, FM radio, LPs, 45s, Television

magnetic tape

used in recording studios, higher quality sound

FM radio

frequency modulation, better sound than AM


long playing records, 12 in. discs, 20-25 min. on each side of record


rpm, could be stacked and automatically went to the next one, like a singles playlist


helped artists gain national popularity

bobby soxers

thousands of teenage girls fans of Sinatra and the Goodman band

Billboard: a music trade journal

an advertisement that appeared in the music trade journal. first ratings of songs like the top 40

"R&B" and "Country & Western"

new terms used by Billboard as more dignified and up-to-date replacements for "Race" and "Hillbilly" respectively

WDIA, Memphis

first radio station dedicated exclusively to playing music for a black audience, featuring the popular blues musician and DJ BB King

covering a song

crucial to the increasing crossover success of black music in the 1950s

jump blues

the first commercially successful category of R&B, flourished during and just after WWII

rock 'n' roll

first used for commercial and generational purposes by DJ Alan Freed; derived from rocking and rolling (in R&B, often sexual implications), used to describe records

Alan Freed

DJ, got caught up in payola scandals, popularized the term "rock n roll"

cover version

two versions of the same song sang by two different artists; often white artists covering a black artist's song, whites sold more

the Twist

1st popular non-partner dance; teen-oriented rock n roll song in a 12-bar blues structure; celebrated a simple, hip-swiveling dance step that was gaining popularity among young blacks

Chubby Checker

2nd artist to come out with the Twist, made it very popular

American Bandstand

hosted by Dick Clark; teen-oriented, nationally broadcast tv show that originated in Philly

Phil Spector

had a #1 record as a member of the Teddy Bears ("To Know Him is to Love Him" composed and produced by him); record producer who came out w/ Phillies Records and who brought depth of meaning to the phrase "in charge" - the wall of sound

Phillies Records

helped establish a new and important model for the production and marketing of pop records; Phil Spector's record company

Wall of Sound

characteristic Phillies sound, remarkably dense and clear

teenage symphonies

very popular, more done in studio; large difference between live and recorded music

Gold Star studios

Spector' preferred recording venue in LA; studio musicians he worked with here became known as the "wrecking crew"

"wrecking crew"

the studio musicians with whom Spector worked with regularly at Gold Star Studios. Best known: Hal Blaine, drummer; Carol Kaye, bassist; Jack Nitzsche, aranger and percussionist

Berry Gordy

created his own songwriting-producing-marketing org.; created motown


songwriting-producing-marketing org.; msot stunning success story in African American business history

Funk Brothers

Motown's sterling house band; assured the highest level of instrumental musicianship was always present to back up and inspire vocal artists

Brian Wilson

formed the Beach Boys; songwriter, arranger, producer, and composer, the guiding spirit in the BB when their artistic and commercial importance and influence were at a peak

the Beach Boys

bestselling American group of the 1960s; a teenage symphony, surf pop

second-generation rock 'n' rolller

one who acknowledges and relies on his predecessors in rock 'n' roll (by quoting/covering); also one who carves out new ground by creating a new sound with new lyrics

the Beatles

played at clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg before coming to America doing covers of Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Carl Perkins, and Buddy Holly; 1st album - Twist and Shout

British Invasion Bands

included the Stones, the Animals, the Who, the Kinks, and Clapton; succes of the others was short-lived

concept album

an album conceived as an integrated whole, with interrelated songs arranged in a deliberate sequence

Latin soul

fusion of rumba and mambo with black American pop music; pushed its way onto the pop charts in 1963; biggest hit: "Watermelon Man" by Ramon "Mongo" Santamaria

bossa nova

Portuguese for "new trend"; Brazilian genre w' mass popularity in the early 60s; a blend of samba rhythms, a sophisticated Brazilian tradition of song composition, and the west coast style of modern jazz


Latin-American stream; very popular in the 60s; a hybrid of several styles, Mexican derived, full of stringed instruments and brass; i.e. "the Lonely Bull"

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