BC Science 9 chapter 4

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Terms in this set (...)

what does the nucleus do
it is the control center of the cell
what is DNA stand for
Deoxyribonucleic acid
what does DNA do
it makes you you ,holds the information about an organism
structure of DNA
twisted ladder know as a double helix
what are the sides of the DNA made of
sugar and phosphate
what is a chromosome
tightly backed DNA, in the shape of a x
how many chromosome do humans have
46 chromosome in 23 pairs
what are Gene
a portion DNA that codes for something examples hair color height, makes proteins
what are the horizontal parts of DNA made of
made from the four nitrogen bases A T GC
what does the nitrogen base A match with
T
what does the nitrogen base G match with
C
what do enzymes do
they speed up chemical reactions in your body
What is a mutations
Bases A T G C get miss paired deleted or added
three different types of Mutations
Positive neutral Negative
what do hormones do
they are messengers that tell cells to do
what does a neutral mutation do
a neutral mutation is a mutation that neither helps nor hinders the organism in question.
what does a positive mutation do
a mutation that positively affects the organism
what does a negative mutation do
a negative mutation affects the organism negatively
what is a mutagen
is a substance or factor that causes mutation in DNA
what is a Gene therapy
gene therapy is a process to correct a mutation by inserting a virus with positive gene to correct a mutation
what is the nucleus
"Control Center" of the cell.
"Contains the cell's DNA (genetic information) in the form of genes
what are the Nucleoli
Biosynthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and production (assembly) of ribosomes.
what are Ribosomes
they manufacture proteins
what is Mitochondria ?
provides energy
what is a golgi body
an organelle that sorts and packages proteins
what is the cell membrane
a thin protective covering that separates the inside of the cell external environment and controls the flow of materials .
what is a cell wall
a tough rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane on plant cells only.
what is the Endoplasmic reticulum
is a Transport system for materials
what is Chloroplast
traps energy from the sun and turns it into glucose
what is cytoplasm
is a jelly like substance that contains organelle and other life supporting materials
what are Vesicles
membrane covered sac that form off the endoplasmic reticulum, they transport new proteins.
What are Vacuoles
membrane covered storage containers
What is nuclear membrane
protects the contents of the nucleus
what are Nuclear pores
are openings in the nuclear membrane that allow only certain materials through to the nucleus
How are proteins made
The nucleus receives a chemical signal to make a specific protein
The DNA message for the specific protein is copied into a small molecule called a RNA
RNA leaves through a clear nuclear pore
The RNA message is delivered to the ribosome, and the ribosome makes the protein
The manufactured protein enters the endoplasmic reticulum
A vesicles forms off the end of the endoplasmic reticulum and carries the protein to the Golgi body
A vesicles forms off the end of the Golgi body to carry the protein to the cell membrane
The vesicle attaches to the cell membrane, and it's protein contents and released out of the cell