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144 terms

CGS2600 Exam #1 Terms

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Computer Literate
being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities
spam
junk mail
Information Technology (IT)
a field of study focused on managing and processing information and the automatic retrieval of information
data mining
the process of searching huge amounts of data with the hope of finding a pattern
bluetooth technology
a type of wireless transmission standard that facilitates the connection of electronic computer devices to peripheral devices
offshore
to send to other countries
computer forensics
this specialty analyzes computer systems with specific techniques to gather potential legal evidence
digital home
means having an appropriate computer and digital devices that are all connected to a home network
radio frequency identification tags (RFID tags)
a tiny tag with a microchip that is used to keep track cows of cows
patient simulator
life-sized, computer controlled mannequins that can speak, breathe, and blink
public domain
not covered by copyright
nanoscience
involves the study of molecules and structures that range in size from 1 to 100 nanometers
nanotechnology
science of using nanostructures to build devices on an extremely small scale
affective computing
computing that relates to emotion or deliberately tries to influence emotion
digital divide
the discrepancy between the haves and have-nots with regard to computer technology
software
instructions that tell the computer what to do
Altair 8800
touted as the first personal computer
Apple Computer Company
started by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak
Apple II
First computer to have an operating system that was stored in read only memory (ROM)
the Osborne
the industry's first portable computer
Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC)
a programming language that the beginning programming student could easily learn; revolutionized the software industry; began the key language of the PC
Microsoft Company
started by Bill Gates and Paul Allen
graphical user interface (GUI)
unlike the command-and menu-driven interfaces used in earlier software, these have display graphics and use the point-and-click technology of the mouse and cursor, making them much more user-friendly
VisiCalc
first spreadsheet program
WordStar
first word processing application
mosaic
the first web browser
pascalene
the first accurate mechanical calculator
Jacquard loom
relied on stiff cards with punched holes to automate the weaving process; much later this punch-card process would be adopted as a means for computers to record and read data
Analytical engine
the first automatic calculator; had components similar to those found in today's computers like the store (RAM) and mill (CPU); invention that gave Charles Babbage the title "the father of computing"
Hollerith Tabulating Machine
machine that used punch cards to tabulate census data; designed by Herman Hollerith who started the Tabulating Machine Company which later changed its name to IBM
Z1
thought to be the first computer to include certain features that are integral to today's systems, such as a control unit and separate memory functions
Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)
the first electrically powered digital computer; the first to use the binary system, first to use vacuum tubes, first to have memory that repowered itself upon booting
compiler
a program that translates Engilsh-language instruction into computer language
Turing Machine
hypothetical model that included a concept that was the precursor to today's RAM
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)
government-sponsored machine developed to calculate the settings used for weapons; generally thought of as the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer
Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC)
first commercially successful electronic digital computer; operated on magnetic tape instead of punch cards like its competitors; first-generation computer
first-generation computers
computers that were the last to use vacuum tubes to store data
transistor
a smaller and more powerful means to store data that replaced the bulky vacuum tubes of earlier computers
second-generation computers
computers that used transistors
integrated circuit
a small chip capable of containing thousands of transistors; enabled computers to become smaller and lighter
third-generation computers
computers that used the first integrated circuits
microprocessor chip
small chip containing millions of transistors; functions as the CPU (brains) of the computer
fourth-generation computers
computers that used a microprocessor chip
data
a representation of a fact, a figure, or an idea
ex. the name sam, the name elizabeth, the number 9045573506
information
data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion
ex. the contact Sam Elizabeth who can be reached at (904)-557-3506
binary language
computer language, consists of two digits: 0 and 1
binary digit (bit)
each 0 and 1 in binary language; a digit that corresponds to the on and off states of a computer's switches
byte
eight binary digits; in computers each letter of the alphabet, number, special character consists of a unique combination of eight binary digits
Ex. the letter K is 01001011
kilobyte (KB)
approximately 1,000 bytes
megabyte (MB)
approximately 1 million bytes
gigabyte (GB)
approximately 1 billion bytes
terabyte (TB)
around 1 trillion bytes
hardware
any part of the computer you can physically touch
application software
the set of programs you use on a computer to help you carry out tasks, such as writing a paper
system software
the set of programs that enables your computer's hardware devices and application software to work together
operating system (OS)
the program that controls the way in which your computer system functions; it provides a means by which users can interact with the computer; the most common type of system software
notebook computer
portable computer that is powered by batteries and has a keyboard, a monitor, and other devices integrated into a single compact case
netbook
small, lightweight notebook computer that is generally 7 to 10 inches wide and has a longer battery life than a notebook computer
tablet PC
similar to a notebook but features a touch sensitive screen that can swivel and fold flat
desktop computer
computer that is intended for use at a single location, and is therefore stationary
peripheral device
component such as a monitor of keyboard that is connected to the computer
all-in-one computer
computer that houses not just the computer's processor and memory but also its monitor
Ex. Apple iMac
mainframe
a large, expensive computer that supports hundred of users simultaneously; many programs but slow pace
supercomputer
a specially designed computer that can perform complex calculations extremely rapidly; designed to execute only a few programs as quickly as possible
Ex. weather forecasting
embedded computer
a specially designed computer chip that resides in another device, such as your car or the electronic thermostat in your home; self contained computer devices that have their own programming and typically do not receive input from you or interact with other systems
input device
enables you to enter data and instructions in to the computer; most common are the keyboard and mouse
cursor control keys
another name for the the arrow keys
optical mouse
a mouse that uses internal sensor or laser to detect movement (instead of a rollerball on the bottom)
trackball mouse
a mouse with a rollerball on the top or side of the mouse, doesn't demand much wrist motion so its better for the wrist than an optical mouse
trackpoint device
a small, joy-stic like nub that allows you to move the cursor with the tip of your finger
liquid crystal display (LCD)
also called a flat-panel monitor, is light weight and energy efficient; this monitor has replaced the CRT monitor
legacy technology
computing devices or peripherals that use techniques, parts, and methods from an earlier time that are no longer popular
pixel
tiny dots that create the images you see on your monitor
aspect ratio
the width-to-height proportion of a monitor
resolution
the clearness of sharpness of the image
nonimpact printer
sprays ink or uses laser beams to transfer marks onto the paper; have replaced impact printers almost entirely
impact printer
has tiny hammerlike keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon, making marks on the paper
laser printer
uses laser beams and static electricity to deliver toner onto the correct areas of the page
inkjet printer
the standard type of printer found in most homes, prints quickly and quietly, works by spraying tiny drops of ink onto paper
plotter
printers that produce over size pictures that require the drawing of precise and continuous lines, such as maps and architectural plans
thermal printer
printer that works either by melting wax-based ink onto ordinary paper or by burning dots onto specially coated paper; they are used in stores to print receipts and in airports for electronic ticketing, among other places
motherboard
main circuit board that contains the central electronic components of the computer, including the computers processor, its memory, and the many circuit boards that help the computer function
system unit
the metal or plastic case that houses the mother board, the power source, and all the storage devices
expansion cards
circuit boards included on the motherboard that provide additional functionality
Ex. sound card provides connection for speakers
network interface-card (NIC)
enables your computer to connect with other computers or to a cable modem to facilitate internet connection
Random Access Memory (RAM)
place in a computer where the programs and data the computer is currently using are stored; much faster to read from and write to than the hard drive; the entire contents are erased when you turn off the computer
volatile storage
temporary storage, not permanent
Read-only Memory (ROM)
holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up when the computer is powered on; nonvolatile storage so the data is permanent
central processing unit (CPU or processor)
referred to as the "brains" of the computer, it controls all the functions performed by the computer's other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructions
nonvolatile storage
storage that holds the data and instructions you computer needs permanently
universal serial bus (USB)
the most common port type used to connect input and output devices to the computer, mainly because of its ability to transfer data quickly
digital video interface (DVI) and S-video (supervideo) ports
port where newer LCD monitors, as well as other multimedia devices such as televisions, DVD players, and projects connect to
ergonomics
applied science concerned with designing and arranging things people use so that people and things interact most efficiently and safely
internet
the largest computer network in the world; a network of networks that connects billions of computer globally
web browser
software that enables a user to display and interact with text and other media on the web
e-mail (electronic mail)
a written message that is sent and received over the internet
instant messaging (IM) services
programs that enable you to communicate in real time with others who are online
netiquette
general rules of etiquette that exist across chat rooms and other online forums
web 2.0
describes an evolved type of web interactions between people, software, and data; describes a trend of new applications to combine the functionality of multiple applications
weblog (blog)
a personal log or journal posted on the web
wiki
a type of web site that allows user to change its content but adding, removing, or editing the content
podcast
a clip of audio or video content that is broadcasted over the internet using compressed audio and video, might include radio shows, audiobooks, etc.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
an XML-based format that facilitates the delivery of frequent content updates on web pages
aggregators
software programs that go out and grab the latest updates of web material according to your specifications
spider
the first part of a search engine, a program that constantly collects data on the web. (followed by a indexer program and then a search engine software)
subject directory
a structure outline of web sites organized by topics and subtopics
Boolean operators
words such as AND, NOT, and OR that describe the relationships between keywords in a search
client
a computer that asks for data
server
a computer that receives the request and returns the data to the client
internet backbones
the largest and fastest pathways of the internet, all intermediate pathways connect back to these
internet protocol address (IP address)
a set of four number separated by periods and commonly referred to as a dotted quad or dotted decimal; they're the means by which all computers connected to the internet identify each other
broadband
"high speed internet"- a type of connection that offers a faster means to connect to the internet
relativism
a theory that holds that there is no universal moral truth and that instead there are only beliefs, perspectives, and values
situation ethics
states that decision making should be based on the circumstances of a particular situation and not on fixed laws
societal ethics
a general set of unwritten guidelines for people to follow
rule utilitarianism
an ethical theory that espouses establishing moral guidelines through specific rules; idea behind this system is that if everyone adheres to the same moral code, society as a whole will improve and people will be happier
unethical behavior
not conforming to a set of approved standards of social of professional behavior
amoral behavior
a person has no sense of right and wrong and no interest in the moral consequences of his or her actions
positive psychology
research that has shown that applying your ethics and values to your daily life can have an impact on your health and happiness
whistle-blowers
people that report business to regulatory agencies for committing illegal acts
program
an instruction set that provides a means for us to interact with and use the computer
productivity software
includes programs that enables you to perform various tasks require at home, school, and business; includes word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, data-base, and personal information manager programs
open source software
software that is publicly available and has few restrictions
proprietary software
software that is not free, nor open source; the code can't be copied, distributed, or changed with the stringent copyright protections of software products
wizard
a systematic guide that walks you through the steps necessary to complete a complicated task
template
a predesigned form included in many productivity applications; they provide basic structurefor a particular kind of document, spreadsheet, or presentation
macro
a small program that groups a series of commands so they will run as a single command.
Ex. teacher may write one to sort the grades in her grade book automatically in descending order and to highly those grades that add up to less than a C average
integrated software application
a single software program that incorporates the most commonly used tools of many productivity software programs into a single integrated program
Ex. microsoft works
vertical market software
software designed for a specific industry
integrated help
means the documentation for the product is built directly into the software so you dont need to keep track of bulky manuals
beta version
an application that is still under development
shareware
software that enables the user to "test" the program for a limited time free of charge
utility program
a small program that performs many of the general house keeping tasks for the computer
network operating system
enables more than one user to access the computer system at one time by efficiently handling and prioritizing requests from multiple users
server
the computer on a network that manages network resources, such as printers
platform
the combination of a computer's operating system and processor
command driven interface
interface in which you enter commands to communicate with the computer system
user interface
enables you to interact with the computer
menu driven interface
interface in which you choose commands from menus displayed on the screen; eliminated the need for users to know every command because they could select most of the commonly used commands from menus displayed on the screen
interrupt
a unique signal that tells the operating system that it is in need of immediate attention
interrupt handler
a special numerical code that prioritizes a computers requests
virtual memory
the space on the hard drive where the operating system stores data if there isn't enough RAM to hold all of the programs you're currently trying to run
thrashing
a condition of excessive paging during which the computer can become sluggish
device driver
a special program that facilitates communication between the hardware device and the operating system