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dusty, yellow soil that makes soil fertile, but also erodes quickly


the wearing away of soil and rock by water and wind


a time of widespread crop failure and starvation


a man-made wall built along a river to keep it from flooding


widespread, windswept plain


political division of land in an empire, like a state in the United States


family members of the emperor who are assigned to govern territories or provinces

Gobi Desert

the largest desert in China

Tibet Plateau

the largest plateau in southwestern China, created by the Indian subcontinent

Huang River

also known as the "Yellow River;" the major river source for Ancient Chinese farmers

Oracle Bones

used by the emperors' advisors to tell the future; animal bones heated and cracked over a fire

Explain why Chinese farmers viewed loess as a blessing and a curse.

It was good for soil fertility, but bad because it easily eroded.

How did Chinese Farmers control the rivers?

They used irrigation and levees.

Diets of the people of the steppes

They would have relied on meat and cheese from their animals.

Diets of the people of the North China Plain

They would have farmed and had more fruits and vegetables.

Qin Dynasty

-lasted only 15 years
-built the Great Wall of China
-Emperor Shihuangdi had clay army built for his tomb
-empire was divided into provinces
-established a single system of money and language

Shang Dynasty

-first dynasty in Ancient China
-lasted 600 years
-used oracle bones

Clay Army

It consisted of over 8,000 clay soldiers, horses, chariots, and real weapons. They were buried in Emperor Shihuangdi's tomb to protect him in the afterlife.

Farmers in the Qin Dynasty

Farmers were the backbone of the dynasty. They were farmers, builders (highways and walls), and soldiers.

Han Gaouzu and Wudi Accomplishments

-began the Han Dynasty which lasted 400 years
-created Grand School
-valued education and Confucianism


He is a well-known Chinese philosopher, teacher, and scholar who taught the Chinese people the proper way to live and think. His teachers were recorded in a book called the "Analects of Confucius."

Confucius' Analects

"Do unto others as you would have done to you."
"If you make a mistake and do not correct it, this is called a mistake."
"Be dutiful to family."

Ancient Chinese Inventions

silk, crossbow, iron plow, gunpowder, fireworks, noodles, etc.


a machine used to detect earthquakes.

Huang River and Qinling Mountains

two basic natural geographic features that helped protect the dynasties of Ancient China.

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