Mitosis and Meiosis
Terms in this set (25)
The Cell Cycle
Cell Cycle: a cycle where a cell
grows, DNA is replicated, and the
"parent cell" divides to form two
identical "daughter cells."
Asexual Reproduction: The reproductive process that involves
only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to
Three reasons why cells reproduce by asexual reproduction:
Stage of growth and development before cell division.
During Interphase, the cell does all of its normal cell functions
Interphase is also when a cell grows and matures to it full size, replicates its DNA,
and prepares to divide
Mitosis: second stage of the cell cycle where chromosomes in
the nucleus are separated to form two new nuclei which are
identical to each other.
First stage of mitosis where chromatin inside the
nucleus condenses down to form chromosomes.
stage where the nuclear envelope, which
surrounds the nucleus, breaks down and disappears.
stage of mitosis where the
themselves in the
middle of the cell.
Stage when chromosomes are separated by
spindle fibers attached to centrosomes. When chromosomes
are split, each sister chromatid moves to opposite poles of
Final stage of mitosis where sister chromatids
reach opposite poles of the cell. A new nuclear envelope then
surrounds each set of chromatids to make 2 new nuclei.
Cytokinesis: Final stage of
the cell cycle. This is where
the parent cell finally divides
into two identical daughter
Plant vs. Animal Cell
Animal cells pinch the cytoplasm in the middle to separate the
Plant cells build a wall between the two halves of the cell to
separate the two cells.
DIPLOID VS. HAPLOID CELLS
Diploid cells contain two sets of chromosomes
Haploid cells contain only one set of chromosomes
Meiosis is a form of cell division that only happens in
reproductive cells (egg and sperms) where the number of
chromosomes is reduced by half.
Prophase 1: chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Each
maternal (mother) and paternal (father) chromosome come
together to form a homologous pair. These pairs come together
and swap DNA in a process called crossover.
Metaphase 1: Chromosome pairs line up in the
middle of the cell and spindle fibers attach to each
Anaphase 1: Homologous chromosome pairs are pulled
apart toward opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase 1: Once chromosomes have reached opposite
ends of the cell, a new nucleus forms around both sets of
Cytokinesis 1: The cell divides to form two new, different
MEIOSIS 2: PROPHASE 2
Prophase 2: Chromatin again condenses into
chromosomes in each cell.
Metaphase 2: Single chromosomes line up in the middle
of the cell and are attached to spindle fibers from
Anaphase 2: The chromosomes are pulled apart into two
chromatids, with each chromatid moving to opposite ends
of the cell. The chromatids are now called chromosomes.
Telophase 2: A new nucleus forms around each set of
chromosomes inside the 2 cells.
Cytokinesis 2: The two cells divide into 4 haploid daughter
cells which each contain half the number of chromosomes
that they started with. Each of the four cells is different.