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molecular motion

reflects the kinetic energy of molecules

velocity of molecular movement

is lower in larger molecules

observations of egg in distilled water

the egg gained weight because the concentration of the egg, 14%, is hypertonic to the water. Water moves by osmosis from an area of higher concentration into an area of lower water concentration

observation of egg in 30% sucrose

the egg lost weight because the concentration of the egg, 14% is hypotonic to the 30% sucrose solution. Water moves by osmosis from an area of higher water concentration into an area of lower water concentration

passive processes

1. account for the movement of fats and respiratory gases through the plasma membrane; 2. include osmosis, simple diffusion, and filtration; 3. use hydrostatic pressure or molecular energy as the driving force

active processes

1. explain solute pumping, phagocytosis, and pinocytosis; 2. may occur against concentration and/or electrical gradients; 3. move ions, amino acids, and some sugars across the plasma membrane


1. lines body cavities and covers the body's external surface; 2. cells may absorb, secrete, filter; 3. synthesizes hormones;


1. pumps blood, flushes urine out of the body, allows one to swing a bat; 2. major function is to contract

nervous; muscle

transmits electrochemical impulses


1. anchors, packages, and supports body organs; 2. the most durable tissue type; 3. abundant nonliving extracellular matrix; 4. most widespread tissue in the body


1. forms nerves and the brain; 2. most involved in regulating and controlling body functions

areolar connective tissue

composes basement membranes; a soft packaging tissue with a jellylike matrix

dense connective tissue

1. attaches bones to bones and muscles to bones; 2. the dermis of the skin

adipose connective tissue

1. acts as a storage depot for fat; 2. insulates against heat loss


makes up the intevertebral discs

osseous tissue

1. forms the hip bone; 2. matrix hard owing to calcium salts; 3. provides levers for muscles to act on

hyaline cartilage

1. forms the larynx, the costal cartilages of the ribs, and the embryonic skeleton; 2. firm, structurally amorphous matrix heavily invaded with fibers; 3. appears glassy and smooth

elastic cartilage

provides a flexible framework for the external ear

hypertonic solution

contains more nonpenetrating solute particles that the interior of the cell

hypotonic solution

contains fewer nonpenetrating solute particles than the interior of the cell

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