Transcription is the process by which information encoded in DNA is converted to information encoded in ____.
With RNA processing, introns have been __________ and a cap and a _____ have been added to the RNA molecule.
In eukaryotes, the first step in the control of gene expression is _____________ _________________.
In eukaryotes, DNA is wrapped around proteins to create a structure called ____________.
Before transcription can occur, the DNA must be bound less _________ to the proteins so that RNA polymerase can access the ____________
RNA polymerase attaches to ______.
The addition of acetyl groups to histones is associated with chromatin _________________ and __________ levels of gene expression .
Acetyl groups __________ the association between DNA and histones, which results in higher levels of transcription.
Why does chromatin remodeling have to be the first step in gene activation?
Eukaryotic DNA can be highly packaged in condensed chromatin and inaccessible to _______________ factors and ______ Polymerase.
Eukaryotic DNA exists in chromatin structures in which it is inaccessible to the transcriptional machinery. As a result, chromatin ______________ must occur before transcription can.
Muscle cells differ from nerve cells mainly because they express different _______.
In a nucleosome, the DNA is wrapped around ___________.
Which method is utilized by eukaryotes to control their gene expression that is NOT used in bacteria?
Control of both RNA ___________ and chromatin ______________
What allows more than one type of protein to be produced from one gene?
Alternative forms of RNA ___________
A researcher found a method she could use to manipulate and quantify phosphorylation and methylation in embryonic cells in culture.
In one set of experiments she succeeded in increasing acetlylation of histone tails. Which of the following results would she most likely see?
activation of histone tails for enzymatic function
decreased binding of transcription factors
decreased chromatin condensation
increased chromatin condensation
inactivation of the selected genes
decreased chromatin condensation
What is most critical for the association between histones and DNA?
Histones are _____________ charged.
(DNA is negatively charged)
_____________ bind to DNA enhancer regions.
Activators are a type of transcription factor that bind to ____________ regions.
The __________ of the DNA allows for the interaction of transcription factors and RNA polymerase.
Both _____ polymerase and ______________ factors bind with the promoter.
Imagine that you've discovered a regulatory sequence thousands of base pairs away from the promoter and that when this sequence is lost due to mutation, levels of gene expression decrease sharply. This sequence is most likely an _____________.
Enhancers are present in all eukaryotes and activate ________________.
Differential gene expression is the result of different cells containing different ______________ ___________.
Regulatory proteins bind to the same regulatory sequence and control ______________ of groups of genes.
What best explains why the discovery of alternative splicing forced biologists to change their definition of a gene?
It showed that a gene can direct the production of more than one specific _______________ or ______.
Alternative RNA splicing allows for the number of different __________ to exceed the number of different ________.
Splicing the exons of an RNA transcript in different ways yields different proteins from the same ______.
What is most accurate concerning how gene expression in eukaryotes compares with that in bacteria?
The number of ___________ that control transcription is much greater in eukaryotes.
The complexity of ______________ between different proteins and between proteins and DNA is much greater in eukaryotic transcriptional control than in bacteria.
In general, this reflects the greater functional _____________ of eukaryotic organisms.
The DNA in one of your brain cells is the same as the DNA in one of your _______ cells.
Histone acetyl transferases exert their effect on gene activity by neutralizing positive charges on the __________ of histones .
Chromatin is the complex of DNA and proteins found in ______________
Compare and contrast enhancers and the E. coli araC binding site. What do they have in common?
Both are sites in DNA where _____________ proteins bind
An enhancer is located at great distances from the _____________
An enhancer is _____________ in any orientation
The araC site is located near the ____________
Compare and contrast promoter-proximal elements and the operator of the lac operon. What do they have in common?
Both are regulatory sites in ______ located close to the ____________
Compare and contrast basal transcription factors and sigma. What do they have in common?
Both are ___________ that must bind to the ____________ before RNA polymerase can initiate transcription
Basal transcription complex __________ RNA polymerase to the ___________
Sigma is part of the RNA polymerase _______________