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Exam 3: Chapter 12-- Substance Abuse
Terms in this set (40)
What is a drug?
Any substance other than food that affects our bodies and minds
Instead of the word "drug," what is now accepted?
What temporary affects form from substance use?
intoxication (poisoning) and sometimes hallucinations when using LSD
What long-term affects form from substance use?
substance use disorder which leads to becoming physically dependent
What is substance use disorder?
a pattern of maladaptive behaviors and reactions brought about by repeated use of substances
What does it mean to build a tolerance?
When you start to need an increased dosage to get the effect desired
What are withdrawn reactions?
unpleasant and dangerous symptoms when substance use is stopped or cut down
What race has the highest prevalence of substance use?
What race has the lowest prevalence of substance use?
What categories do substances fall into?
What substance slows the activity of the CNS?
What substance reduces tension and inhibitions?
When is it considered to be binge drinking for men? women?
Men: 5+ drinks
Women: 4+ drinks
What area of the brain is first affected by alcohol?
the area that controls judgment and inhibition
As drinking continues in a night, what happens to your body?
additional areas of the CNS are affected making your judgements even more unclear, your speech slurred, and memory impaired. It becomes more difficult to move as you continue to drink
How the effect of ethyl alcohol determined?
by the concentration in the blood
What enzyme in the stomach metabolizes alcohol before it enters the blood?
What group specifically show a higher rate of alcohol use disorder?
Native American Men
Why is it that Asians have lower rates of alcohol disorder?
deficiency of alcohol dehydrogenase
How does the clinical view explain alcohol use disorder?
Says that people turn to alcohol in order to do things that would otherwise make them anxious
what is a severe type of alcohol withdrawal?
How can alcoholism impact social and personal situations?
- destroys families, careers, relationships, etc.
- plays a role in suicide, rapes, assault, etc.
- Has serious effect on children
What part of the body can long-term excessive drinking damage?
What disease can long-term excessive drinking damage?
What happens to women who drink when pregnant?
They put their babies at risk for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or miscarriage
What causes substance abuse?
There is not one single explanation. Clinical theorists have developed biological, sociological, and psychological reasons. The best explanation is that it is a combination of all three
What is the sociocultural view of explanation for alcoholism?
- More likely to develop in stressful situations or low SES conditions
- environment lacking any stimulation
- more likely to appear in families or social environments where usage is valued or accepted
What is the psychodynamic view of explanation for alcoholism?
- their dependency needs are traced back to earlier years
- lack of parental nurturing
- impulsivity could have an influence on developing alcoholism (although an addictive personality has shown to not be so true)
How does the cognitive-behavioral explain operant conditioning playing a role in substance abuse
- it's because the substance temporarily reduces tension
- rewards develop an expectancy that the substances will be rewarding
What is the "self-medication hypothesis?"
Cognitive-behavioral therapy view saying that the substance eases tension, giving a "reward" to the user. The user then expects this feeling overtime they use and think it will always be rewarding
What is the genetic predisposition view?
Biological view that shows how alcoholism may be inherited if the parents have a preference for it
According to the biological view, what neurotransmitter is out of whack and could be a cause of substance abuse?
What drugs directly stimulate the reward center of the brain?
cocaine, amphetamines, and caffeine
What is reward deficiency syndrome?
When people seek out substances because they have a lack of dopamine allowing them to feel happy about normal things
What other addictive disorders are there?
- gambling disorder
- internet disorder
How do behavioralists treat substance abuse
aversion therapy with classical conditioning principals
What condition is usually treated with aversion therapy?
How to cognitive behavioralists treat substance abuse?
relapse prevention training where the goal is for the client to gain control over their substance-related behavior
What kind of treatments are involved with cognitive behavioralists?
- journaling and keeping track of their drinking
- learning coping strategies to use
- planning ahead of time
What is the most commonly used sociocultural therapy for substance abuse?
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