Philip II (of Spain)
The son of Charles V who later became husband to Mary I and king of Spain and Portugal. He supported the Counter Reformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England (1527-1598) He was a intolerant, Catholic king.
ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
Edict of Nantes
a 1598 declaration in which the French King Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities
(1585-1642) Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. Break the power of the nobility, 2. Humble the House of Austria, 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.
Thirty Years' War
(1618-1648 CE) War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
(1740-1780) Archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary. Lost the Hapsburg possession of Silesia to Frederick the Great but was able to keep her other Austrian territories (Empress of Austro-Hungary)
Seven Years War
fought between England and France, 1756-1763; known as the French and Indian War in the colonies, it started in 1754, over control of the Ohio River Valley and resulted in France's withdrawal from North America. It was the impetus for Parliament's taxing policy that led to the American Revolution.
an adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western—especially European or American—countries.
Ivan the Terrible
Who: first czar (king) of all the Russias, married into an old boyar family (Russian nobles) called the Romanovs
What: came to the throne at three years of age, struggled for power with the nobility (the boyars), at 16 -took control and crowned himself czar (king): good period(1547-1550) was when he added new lands to Russia, gave them their first law code, and ruled justly. His 'Bad' Period (1560-1581) saw the death of his wife, his mistrust and persecution of the boyars using a 'secret' police to execute many of them unjustly. Finally in a fit of rage - he killed his oldest son and left a weak son who died three years later..Ivan died with no heirs and a new ruler- the great nephew of his wife -Michael Romanov was chosen to rule as czar - this family ruled from 1613 to 1917.
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. (p. 552)
government in which a king or queen is the official head of state, but elected officials run the government
persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers
English Civil War
Charles I tried to advocate the divine right of kings and bring more absolutist policies to England. He was also seen as bringing too much Catholic influence to the Church of England. War broke out between Parliament's supporters(Roundheads)and the kings's supporters(Cavaliers). Later Charles I was tried and executed in 1649 as a"tyrant,traitor,murderer,and public enemy". Oliver Cromwell,leader of military,ruled England as "Lord Protector" until 1658.