64 terms

Perceptual psychology- Senses

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Senses...
chemical
Bodily
Equilibrioception
visual
Audion
Chemical senses- gustation, olfaction
bodily senses- somatosenstation
Haptics
Proprioception
Equilibrioception
Perceptual focus is limited...
Perception is a more interactive, and involves more great deal of processing.
Perception...
how information is transferred into brain. Only a small percentage can't be directly attended. thalamus regulates this.
Senation vs perception...
sensation- detected of physical energy by sense organs
Perception- brains processing and interpretation to create continuous window into the world.
Many division between two is redundant.
sensory intergration...
taste and smell
Rubber hand illusion (Sensory integration)...
combination of visual, somatosensation (haptic), and propriocpetion
Psychophysics...
refers to study of subjective experience of perception.
Relationship between physical stimuli and psychology.
somatosenation..
array of reception with range of shapes and sizes.
Neurons- thermoceptors, and pressure.
Over stimulation of nay senses results in...
pain.
Neuropsychology..
1. receptor
2. peripheral nervous system
3. Thalamus
4. Somatosensory cortex.
thalamus somatosensory cortex, behind motor cortex
Larger the portion of the somatosensory cortex the...
more sensitive the body portion will be and more adept with fine motor control.
Lips, mouth, tongue and hands most proportionately large.
Gustation...
piplae- taste buds.
Located in clumps
respond to chemicals in saliva (saliva therefore required for taste)
mice have receptors for fat and milk
Salt
sweet
bitter
sour
ummai- monosoduim glutamate

ratios of the activation of pipilae determine taste.
Some specific receptors located in greater proportions in some regions than others. - leading to the false region based model from the 70's.
Smell
odours activate recptorsin the epithelium at the top of the nasal cavity
by pass the thalamas directly into the brain
Smell's importance its attested by its direct route to the brain
Balance (equilibrioception)
vestibular system provides input about acceleration.
vestibular system
components of the inner ear not associated with sound processing-
The semi-ciricular canals
Utricle and sacile
above cochlea
orthogonal to one another -3 x semi-cricular canals
proproicpetion
function:
co-ordinated movements, fine motor adjustment to maintain posture.
Feedback from motor receptor in muscles or joint
implicit and unconscious
Audition..
...
Sound
pressure wave (compresses the air infront of it to create the wave and then decompress. Creating high and low pressure waves.
frequency...
the alternation between high to low to high again
Measured in hertz
pitch
amplitude
resting pressure and the highest measurement
loud
frequency represents...
pitch
amplitude,,,
loudness/magnitude of earth quake
Hearing process...
ear canal
Timpanic membrane
Hammer anvil and stirrup (ossicles)
cochealar- basal membrane
Basilar membrane..
apex-low
base- high
resonant frequency..
causes object to resonant as its highest lthreshold
auditory cortex...
different regions associated with corresponding pitches. Lower more ventral. Higher more dorsal.
Auditory localisation..
Inter aura time differences -sound wave hits one ear before another dependent upon direction.
Inter aural intensity differences- in front and behind
continual head movement
pinni - bounce around
cone of confusion...
lack of ability to discriminate the difference between points a and b , and c and in a projected circular sphere in front of us.
Sources of hearing loss...
conducive deafness- impediment in the transmission of sound from sound wave to basiliar membrane
ossicfied ossicales
Sensor-neural deafnesses-
auditory cortex sustained damage via trauma/stroke,/ hair cells on basiilar membrane.
Webber's law...
more intense the stimulus the larger the increase to be noticable
Transduction...
conversion from physical energy to electrical energy interpreted by the PNS/CNS
Absolute threshold..
Smallest quantity of stimulus detectable 50% of the time.
just noticeable difference...
smallest increase in stimulus detectable
Fechner was responsible for the inception of which field of psychology...
Psychophysics.
signal to noise ratio alters how perceptible the intended stimulus is to traduce... accounted for by which theory...
signal detection theory
response bias in experimentation is a....
baseline consideration for psychophysics experiments.
sensation determine by sense receptor rather than the stimulus... who proposed.
Evidence for this...
Highlight the influence of sensory modality upon perception
Muller
Phosphenes
Cross-modal processing...
intertwining of sensory cortexes - may explain sensory integration. (Smell and taste)
Mcgurk effect... reliance upon visual when uncertain of auditory information...
explains fa vs ba.
Sythenesia...
caused intense cross-modality sensations
rubber hand illusion another example.
Selective attention...
Reticular activating system and the basal forebrain.
filter attention theory...
focus on important stimuli and ignore others. unattended info still processed implicitly (shadowing).
binding problem..
signals into a concrete perception
additive colour mixing...
Subtractive mixing
produces lighter colours- white at most
produces darker ones (paint/printer)
accommodation...
cillary muscles pull the eye to focus objects upon near or far.
myopia...
hyperopia
near sightedness- cornea to steep/long eyes
far sightedness- flat cornea/ short eyes
feature detection..
fill in from minimal patterns.
colour blind...
carried on x chromsome, most di-chromats rather than monomats.
visual agnosia...
can't label objects. Similar to anomia (inability to name the written)
cataracts...
leading cause of blindness
Blindsight..
those with blindness (V1- inoperable) correct about objects in their visual field.
vomersal organ..
animals detect pheromones with...
parallel processing...
two modalities simulatneously
bottom up...
whole from parts. Sensory orienatated. primary sensory cortex
top down...
conceptually driven. influenced by beliefs (association cortex)
perceptual set...
relationship between object and its context.
Tendency to group similar objects
perceptual constancy...
shapes ,size (across distance), and colour (different lighting) constancy are perceived as similar across contexts
when outlines are missing the brain may provide...
subjective contours
gesalt priceless ensure that objects are percieved in realtionship to one another, not as free floating agents.
objects as whole within their context.
Support for projection of constancy and visual schemas to make sense of the world.
Gesalt principles include...
closure - complete with subjective contours
figure ground (similar to perceptual set)
Similarity- objects similar qualities associated
bi-stability- images that may be perceived in two ways
phi phenomenon- false movement perceived from sharp flashes.
indicators of depth-perception...
monocular:
relative size- objects in the distance smaller than those close
Texture gradient- objects less textured with distances
light and shadow
indicators of depth-perception...
binocular
Binocular disparity: like auditory stereopsis the sensory field over lap.
Binocular convergence:
triangular on object (Pythagoras)
visual cliff experiment...
validates that depth perception is likely innate, and well-established by crawling age.
ESP
precognition
Clairvoyance- knowledge of others, and objects without one of the five senses
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