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Abraham Lincoln

• Reconstruction plan calling for reconciliation
• Preservation of the Union was more important than punishing the South

Robert E. Lee

• Urged Southerners to reconcile with Northerners at the end of the war and reunite as Americans when some wanted to continue to fight
• Became president of Washington College, which is now known as Washington and Lee University

Frederick Douglass

• Fought for adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights
• Was a powerful voice for human rights and civil liberties for all

Transcontinental Railroad

Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west

Battle of Little Bighorn

(1876): Also called Custer's Last Stand, it was the most famous incident of the Indian Wars. Cheyenne and Sioux indians killed Custer and all of his men.

Sitting Bull

Sioux chief who led the attack on Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn


Apache leader who fought U.S. soldiers to keep his land. He led a revolt of 4,000 of his people after they were forced to move to a reservation in Arizona.

Chief Joseph

Lead the Nez Perce during the hostilities between the tribe and the U.S. Army in 1877. His speech "I Will Fight No More Forever" mourned the young Indian men killed in the fighting.

Battle of Wounded Knee

US soldiers massacred 300 unarmed Native American in 1890. This ended the Indian Wars.

California Gold Rush

1849 (San Francisco 49ers) Gold discovered in California attracted a rush of people all over the country to San Francisco.- continued to attract people to the West through the rest of the Century


areas of federal land set aside for American Indians


the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture


formal agreements between nations

Reasons for increase westward expansion

• Opportunities for land ownership
• Technological advances, including the Transcontinental Railroad
• Possibility of obtaining wealth, created by the discovery of gold and silver
• Desire for adventure
• Desire for a new beginning for former enslaved African Americans

Impact of Westward Expansion on American Indians

• Opposition by American Indians to westward expansion (Battle of Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull, Geronimo)
• Forced relocation from traditional lands to reservations (Chief Joseph, Nez Percé)
• Reduced population through warfare and disease (Battle of Wounded Knee)
• Assimilation attempts and lifestyle changes (e.g., reduction of buffalo population)
• Reduced their homelands through treaties that were broken

Reasons for the increase in immigration

• Hope for better opportunities
• Desire for religious freedom
• Escape from oppressive governments
• Desire for adventure

Reasons why cities grew and developed

• Specialized industries, including steel (Pittsburgh) and meat packing (Chicago)
• Immigration to America from other countries
• Movement of Americans from rural to urban areas for job opportunities


The growth of machine-powered production in an economy


the growth of cities and the migration of people into them


poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived

Hull House

Settlement home, founded by Jane Addams, designed as a welfare agency for needy families.

Political machines

an organization linked to a political party that often controlled local government and gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants (e.g., jobs, housing)


city slum areas inhabited by minority groups living there due to social or economic pressures

Racial segregation

• Based upon race
• Directed primarily against African Americans, but other groups also were kept segregated

American Indian citizenship

American Indians not considered citizens until 1924

"Jim Crow" laws

• Passed to discriminate against African Americans
• Made discrimination practices legal in many communities and states
• Were characterized by unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government

Booker T. Washington

Believed equality could be achieved through vocational education; accepted social segregation

W.E.B. DuBois

Believed in full political, civil, and social rights for African Americans.

Thomas Edison

One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.

Alexander Graham Bell

United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)

John D. Rockefeller

formed Standard Oil Trust and made millions while monopolizing the oil industry

Andrew Carnegie

was a Scottish-born American industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company which later became U.S. Steel.

Cornelius Vanderbilt

United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)

Captains of industry

owners and managers of large industrial enterprises who wielded extraordinary political and economic power

Reasons for the rise and prosperity of big business

• National markets created by transportation advances
• Captains of industry (John D. Rockefeller, oil; Andrew Carnegie, steel; Cornelius Vanderbilt, shipping and railroads)
• Advertising
• Lower-cost production

Factors that resulted in growth of industry

• Access to raw materials and energy
• Availability of work force due to immigration
• Inventions
• Financial resources

Examples of big business

• Railroads
• Oil
• Steel

Postwar changes in farm and city life

• Mechanization (e.g., the reaper) reduced farm labor needs and increased production.
• Industrial development in cities created increased labor needs.
• Industrialization provided new access to consumer goods (e.g., mail order).

Negative effects of industrialization

• Child labor
• Low wages, long hours
• Unsafe working conditions

American Federation of Labor

1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.

Homestead Strike

1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.

Progressive Movement workplace reforms

• Improved safety conditions
• Reduced work hours
• Placed restrictions on child labor

Women's suffrage

Women's right to vote

19th Amendment

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.

Susan B. Anthony

social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

A pioneer in the women's suffrage movement, she helped organize the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. She later helped edit the militant feminist magazine Revolution from 1868 - 1870.

Temperance movement

Composed of groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcohol

18th Amendment

prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages

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