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Biology Chapter 3

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Some types
Of organisms rely on the energy stored in
Inorganic chemical compounds
Example of chemical energy
Mineral water that flows underground or boils out of hot spring and undersea vents
Autotrophs
Plants, some algae and certain bacteria can Capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food
Autotrophs use energy from the environment to....
Use energy from the environment to fuel the assembly of simple organic compounds into complex organic molecules
Producers
Autotrophs that make their own food
Kelp
An autotroph that uses energy from the sun to produce living tissue
Ecology
Scientific study of interactions among Organisms and between organisms and their environment or surroundings
Ernst Haeckel
Invented word ecology in 1866 (German biologist)
Biosphere
Contains combined portions of the planet in which all of life exists, including land water and air or atmosphere.
Biosphere extends:
8 km above earths surface to as far as 11 km below the surface of the ocean
The study of ecology ranged from the study of an ...
Individual organism to populations, communities, ecosystems, biomes and finally entire biosphere
Species
Group of organisms do similar to one another that they can breed and produced fertile offspring
Populations
Groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Communities
Assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area
Ecosystem
Collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their no living, or physical environment
Biome
A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities
The highest level of organization that ecologists study is
The entire biosphere
Ecological methods are
Observing, experimenting, and then modeling
Observing
Examine species/biosphere. Asking questions and 5 senses w/taste last
Experimenting
Used to test hypotheses. Some experiments are conducted within natural ecosystem others set up an artificial environment in a lab to imitate and manipulate condition
Modeling
Used to gain insight into complex phenomena such as the effects of global warming (connected to experimenting)
Sunlight is the ...
Main energy source for life on earth
Photosynthesis
Autotrophs use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and
Energy rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
On land plants are the main
Autotrophs
In freshwater ecosystems and in the sunlit upper layers of the ocean, algae...
are the main autotrophs
Important in certain wet ecosystems such as tidal flats and salt marched
Photosynthetic bacteria, the most common of which are the Cyanobacteria
Chemosynthesis
When organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates (this process is performed by several types of bacteria)
Some chemosynthesis bacteria live in
Very remote places on earth such as volcanic vents on the deep ocean floor and hot springs in yellow stone park and tidal marshes along the coast
Animals, fungi, and many bacteria cannot harness...
Cannot harness energy directly
From the physical environment as
Autotrophs
Consumers/heterotrophs
Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply (aka heterotrophs)
Herbivores
Obtain energy by eating only plants
Example of herbivores
Cows, caterpillars, and deer
Example of carnivores
Snakes, dogs, and owls, humans, beards, crows
Example of detritivores
Mites, earthworms, snails, and crabs
Example of decomposers
Bacteria and fungi
Energy flows through an....
Ecosystem in one direction from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumer)
Food chain
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
Describe a prairie ecosystem
Producer-grass
(Fed upon a herbivore: a grazing antelope)
(Herbivore is fed upon by a carnivore): coyote
Carnivore is two steps removed from the producer
Describe a marine food chain/ecosystem
Producers: microscopic algae
Eaten by organisms called zooplankton: small fish eat zooplankton: squid eats small fish: shark eats squid
Food chains show the ......
One way flow of energy in an ecosystem
Food web
When the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem form a new towel of complex interactions
Trophic level
Each step in a food chain or food web
Producers make up the ....trophic level
1st
Consumers make up the .......trophic level
2nd,3rd, or higher trophic levels. (Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy)
Ecological pyramid
Diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
What are the 3 types of ecological pyramid
Energy pyramids, biomass pyramid, and pyramids of numbers
Only about _____ percent of the energy available within ____ trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level
10%, one
The more levels that exist between a producer and a top level consumer in an ecosystem, the _______________
Less energy that remains from the original amount
Biomass
Total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
Biomass is usually expressed in terms of _______
Grams of organic matter per unit area
A biomass pyramid represents
The amount of potential food available for each trophic level in an ecosystem
Pyramid of numbers
Ecological pyramids can also be based on the numbers of individual organisms at each trophic level
Because each trophic level harvests only about _______ of the energy from the level below, it can support only about ______ the amount of living tissues
One tenth, one tenth
Habitat
Particular population of a species lives
Examples of a habitat
Fish tank, home
Humans are part of what sphere
Biosphere
Biologists focus on what levels of organization to study interactions between organisms and their surroundings
Species, population,communities, ecosystem, and biomes
Abiotic factors
Physical aspects of s habitat
Examples of abiotic factors
Minerals, organic compounds, soil, water, rain, wind, sunlight
Biotic factors
Living organisms in a habitat
Biodiversity
Variety of organisms, their genetic differences, and the communities and ecosystems in which they occur
Tropical rain forests
Greatest biodiversity on earth
Every ecosystem has
Animals (birds, mammals, reptiles, insects, worms)
Plants (trees, shrubs, flowers)
Protist (algae, amoebas)
Fungi (lichens, mycorrhizae)
Bacteria
Boundaries
No boundaries within an ecosystem: barriers change all the time
Biodiversity=
Stability
Energy flow
Most important factor that determines what kinds of organisms live in an ecosystem and how many organisms the ecosystem can support
Ultimate source of energy is
The sun
Less than _____ of the Suns energy is used by living organisms
1%
Autotrophs
Plants, algae, and some bacteria use the energy and store it as chemical energy in inorganic molecules
______ give you energy
Bonds
Producers
Organisms that first capture energy (plants, some bacteria, and algae)
Consumers
Organisms that consume other organisms for energy
Primary productivity
Rate at which these organic molecules are produced in an ecosystem by photosynthesis (how much photosynthesis activity)
Some autotrophs can produces food
Without light
They rely on energy within
The chemical bonds of inorganic molecules such as hydrogen sulfide
Chemosynthesis
Process where organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
Examples of chemosynthesis
Several types of bacteria, including those on volcanic vents in the oceans and in the hot springs of Yellowstone carry out chemosynthesis
Heterotrophs
Many organisms, including animals, fungi and many bacteria cannot harness energy from the physical environment. They rely on other organisms for their energy and food
First trophic level
Producers used the Suns energy to build molecules. They begin the food chain which is the simple path of energy through trophic levels
Second trophic level
Herbivores eat plants or other primary producers (primary consumers that must be able to break down a plants molecules into usable compounds
Third trophic level
Secondary consumers (eat other organisms)
Carnivores
Eat only other animals
Omnivores
Eat both plants and animals
Fourth trophic level
Carnivores that consume other carnivores aka tertiary consumers
Fifth trophic level
Detritivores (decomposers) obtain their energy from the organic wasted and decomposing bodies produced at every level (recycles nutrients)
During every transfer of energy in an ecosystem (between every trophic level) energy is
Lost as...
Heat (almost 90%)
Because of the energy loss, eventually there is not enough
Energy available to support life
Energy pyramid
Diagram in which each trophic level is represented by a block
It takes much _____energy to support _________than carnivores
Less; herbivore
Biomass
Dry weight of tissue and other organic matter found in an ecosystem
Like energy, each higher level on the biomass pyramid contains only
10% of the biomass found in the trophic level below it (related to primary productivity )
What elements make up 93% of all living things
Carbon, hydrogenated oxygen, and nitrogen
What elements make up 96.6% of all living things
Carbon, hydrogen, Oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur
Physical parts of ecosystems are constantly...
Being recycled
Four most important substances that are cycles in ecosystems are...
Water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous
bio geochemical cycles
Substances pass from the non living environment to living organisms and then back to the non living environment again. These paths from closed cycles
In each bio geochemical cycle, a pathway forms when a.....
Substance enters living organisms, stay for a while, then returns to the non living environment
Water cycle's three main steps
-condensation
-precipitation
-evaporation
Transpiration
The movement of water to the atmosphere from leaves
Co2 is given off by
-respiration
-combustion burning of organic material
-volcanic eruptions and erosion
-remains of dead organisms
-forest fire
Co2 is taken in by
Photo synthesizing organisms
Organisms eat plants and give off
Co2
Nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen is the major component of our atmosphere
Nitrification
Nitrogen fixation is the process of
Combining nitrogen with hydrogen to form ammonia (a few very important bacteria can do this and lightning too)
Denitrification
Conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas by soil bacteria
What element is crucial for molecules such as
DNA and RNA
We need nitrogen for
Amino acids
Phosphorus is in
Soil and rock which dissolve in water
Roots of plants absorb...
The phosphate ions and build organic molecules
Animals eat the plants and.....phosphorus
Reuse phosphorous
Phosphorus cycle is a very ...._____cycle
Slow cycle
Limiting nutrients
When an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly
Algal bloom
When an aquatic ecosystem received a large input of a limited nutrient, there is an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers
If there are not enough _____ to eat the algae, the __________ecoystem...
Consumers; entire ecosystem is disrupted
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