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Human Growth & Development Ch. 12
Terms in this set (40)
In Kohlberg's theory, the level of moral reasoning in which judgements are based on rules or norma of a group to which the person belongs. Stages 3&4
A combination of cliques, which include both males and females.
Four to six young people who appear to be strongly attached to one another.
A form of aggression in which electronic communications are used to intentionally inflict harm on others. Often accompanied by aggressive behavior in other contexts. Allows aggression with anonymity that can distance the perpetrator from immediate victim response.
Antisocial behavior that includes law-breaking. Two sub-variations by age of delinquency onset. Child onset is more serious and is likely to be present into adulthood. Adolescent onset is milder and more transitory.
A sense of belonging to an ethnic group.
In Marcia's theory, the identity status of a person who had made a commitment without having gone through a crisis; the person has simply accepted a parentally or culturally defined commitment.
Gender role identity
The gender-related aspects of the psychological self. Adolescent's continue to understand sex roles as social conventions and grow more flexible.
In Marcia's theory, the identity status achieved by a person who has been through a crisis and reached a commitment to ideological or occupational goals.
Identity vs role confusion
In Erikson's theory, the stage during which adolescents attain a sense of who they are.
In Marcia's theory, the identity status of a person who is not in the midst of a crisis and who has made no commitment.
Erikson's term for the psychological state of emotional turmoil that arises when an adolescent's sense of self becomes unglued so that a new, more mature sense of self can be achieved.
An understanding of one's unique characteristics and how they have been, are, and will be manifested across ages, situations, and social roles.
In Marcia's theory, the identity status of a person who is in a crisis but had made no commitment.
In Kohlberg's theory, the level of moral reasoning in which judgements are based on an integration of individual rights and the needs of society. Stages 5&6
In Kohlberg's theory, the level of moral reasoning in which judgements are based on authorities outside the self. Stages 1&2
The ability to look at a situation from another person's perspective.
Freud's stage of psychoanalytical development in which libido is channeled into healthy sexual relationships and psychosexual maturity is achieved.
Identity vs role confusion stage
Erikson's psychosocial stage of development in which achievement of personal identity occurs and reflects an understanding of ones own unique traits and how they manifest across ages and social rules.
Components of self understanding
More abstract definition of psychological self. Academic self-concepts from internal comparisons and external comparisons. Social self-concepts predict behavior.
As children grow older, they define themselves less and less by what they ___ like and more and more by what they ___ like.
Internal & external
Self defined & internal.
Girls are influenced by ___ & ___ comparisons whereas boys are more ___ & ___.
___ is a sense of global self worth.
High masculinity & high femininity.
Low masculinity & low femininity.
3 stages of ethnic identity
Jean Phinney: unexamined ethnic identity, ethnic identity search & clear ethnic identity.
Self concept of biracial teens
Achieving identity may be more complex and a range of factors interact with a teens personality.
Self concepts of immigrant teens
Possible clashes between parents' cultural values and the new culture. Many teens develop a bicultural identity.
Causes of moral development
Progression in age and corresponding cognitive development. Decline of egocentrism. Improvement in role taking & support from social environment.
Criticism of Kohlberg's theory
This narrow approach is not universal and non-western cultures do not fit well into This system.
Criticism of Kohlberg's theory: Nancy Eisenberg: the ability to identify with others' emotions; both cause and consequence of moral development.
Criticism of Kohlberg's theory: Ethics based on caring for others and on maintaining social relationships. Two distinct orientations, gender differences & North American bias.
Low levels of moral reasoning, lack of empathy & vulnerability to situational factors
Adolescent's who engage in serious forms of antisocial behavior have these three things.
Adolescent onset conduct disorder
Typically milder and more transitory. May be a reflection of peer pressure. Characterized by lag of behavior behind moral reasoning. Unable to look at own or assess hypothetical offenses from victim perspective. Likely to display a cluster of other problem behaviors.
Establish autonomy & maintain relatedness
Conflicts with parents increase but attachment is still high. Individual traits and cultural factors affect the degree and meaning of parent-teen conflict.
Strong attachment to parents
Sense of well being is more strongly correlated with the quality of parent attachment than with peer attachment. Strong attachments are associated with positive short term and long term outcomes.
Increasing intimate, more stable than those of younger children and share interests and activities are important.
Relatively stable. Share values, behaviors & identity status. Explicit peer pressure is more likely directed toward positive activities.
Teens as young as ___-___ have concepts of being in love.
Awareness of same-sex attraction occurs around ___-___.
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