Chapter 10: Personality
Terms in this set (86)
A pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world.
The unique way in which an individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life.
Theoretical views empathising that personality is primarily unconscious (beyond awareness).
Lack of awareness is motivated, unconscious forces are simply too frightening to be part of our conscious awareness.
Physical symptoms that have no physical cause.
The part of the person that Freud called the "it," consisting of unconscious drives; the individual's reservoir or sexual energy.
e.g. do whatever feels good, ignore consequences. E.g. the devil on our shoulder.
Concept that the Id always seeks pleasure.
The Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality.
Partly conscious, yourself.
Mediator between the two other structures of personality.
The ego tries to bring the individual pleasure within the norms of society.
The Freudian structure of personality that serves as the harsh internal judge of our behavior; what we often call conscience.
The moral center, partly conscious, e.g. the Angel on our shoulder.
Tactics the ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
Typically unconscious conflicts between Id, Superego, and Ego.
The ego simply refuses to acknowledge anxiety-producing realities.
Realities are from the Id.
Directing unacceptable impulses at a less threatening target.
The Ego allows the Id impulses to be expressed in a different way.
Turning socially unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behavior.
Placing one's own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts belonged to them and not to oneself.
The most powerful and pervasive defense mechanism. Pushes unacceptable Id impulses back into the unconscious mind.
A person's conscious experiences is the exact opposite of his or her unconscious feelings.
Often a superego issue.
e.g. homophobe who is unconsciously gay.
Allowing a person the freedom to explore and identify his or her own needs, feelings, wishes, and desires.
Points on defense mechanisms
1. They are unconscious
2. When used in moderation or on a temporary basis, they are not necessarily unhealthy.
Parts of the body that have especially strong pleasure-giving qualities at particular stages of development.
Freud believed our adult personality is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between these early sources of pleasure.
First 18 months.
Infant's pleasure centers on the mouth. Chewing, sucking, and biting are chief sources of pleasure that reduce tension.
18 to 36 months.
During a time which most children experiencing toilet training.
Greatest pleasure involves anus and urethra and their functions. There is pleasure in "going" and "holding it" as well as the experience over control of one's parents deciding when to do either.
Harsh parenting may result in anal expulsive (slob) or anal retentive (stubborn, neat, control) personality.
3 to 6 years.
Comes from the Latin word phallus which means penis. Pleasure focuses on the genitals as the child discovers that self-stimulation is enjoyable.
According to Freud, a boy's intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother.
For females, they deal with conflict by copying the same sex parent's behavior, values, etc. Also can be done by boys.
A boy's intense fear of being mutilated by his father.
Anxiety repressed into unconscious; basis of superego.
A female's intense desire to obtain a penis by eventually marrying and bearing a son.
Freud: w/o castration anxiety, girl's superegos don't fully develop, making them morally inferior to men.
6 years to puberty.
After the drama of the phallic stage, the child sets aside all interest in sexuality. More of a "time out."
Freud believed no psychosexual development occurred at this period.
Adolescence and adulthood.
Sexual reawakening. Source of sexual pleasure shifts to someone outside the family around the same age.
Individual becomes capable of the two hallmarks of maturity: love and work.
Occurs when a particular psychosexual stage colors and individual's adult personality.
Horney's sociocultural approach
Argued that sociocultural influences on personality development should be considered.
The need for security is the prime motivation, not sex.
Jung's analytical theory
The collective unconscious and archetypes.
Jung's name for the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind, share by all human beings because of their common ancestral past.
Jung's term for emotionally laden ideas and images in the collective unconscious that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people.
View that people are motivated by purposes and goals and that perfection, not pleasure, is thus the key motivator in human life.
Adler's term for individual's attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing one's own abilities.
Theoretical views stressing a person's capacity for personal growth and positive human qualities.
The motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being.
Believed that we are all born with the raw ingredients for a fulfilling life. We simply need the right conditions to thrive.
To function optimally, must experience a relationship that includes: empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard.
Unconditional positive regard
Rogers's construct referring to the individual's need to be accepted, valued, and treated positively regardless of his or her behavior.
Conditions of worth
The standards that the individual must live up to in order to receive positive regard from others.
Can become part of who we think we ought to be. As a result we can become alienated from our genuine feelings and strive to actualize a self that is not who we were meant to be.
Our conscious representation of who we are and who we wish to become, during childhood.
Theoretical views stressing that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses.
If a trait is important to people in real life, it ought to be represented in the natural language people use to talk about one another.
The more important a trait is, the more likely it is that it should be represented by a single word.
A procedure that allowed researchers to identify which traits go together in terms of how they are rated. Essentially tells us what items on a scale people are responding to as if they mean the same thing.
The five-factor model of personality
Researchers have found five broad personality dimensions that are represented in the natural language.
Big five factors of personality
The five broad traits that are thought to describe the main dimensions of personality: OCEAN
Openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
Emotional instability. Related to feeling negative emotion more often than positive emotion in one's daily life and to be experiencing more negative states.
High scorers: poorer health outcomes.
Serotonin is a factor.
How outgoing and social a person is
High scorers: experience more gratitude and are more forgiving.
Dopamine is a factor.
Openness to experience
Willingness to try new things.
High scorers: tend to be creative and liberal.
How easygoing, friendly, and likeable a person is.
High scorers: successful romantic relationships, altruism
A person's likelihood of being thorough, careful and vigilant.
High scorers: higher GPA, quality friendships.
A person's assessment of his or her own level of positive affect relative to negative affect, and the individual's evaluation of his or her life in general.
Briefer experiences (positive/negative moods)
Personological and life story perspectives
Theoretical views stressing that the way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story.
Murray's personological approach
Believed that our motives are largely unknown to us, so that measures of motivation must be developed that do not just ask people to say what it is they want.
Study of the whole person
A procedure in which a psychologist takes a person's story and codes it for different images, words, and so forth.
Life story approach to identity
The idea that each of us has a unique life story, full of ups and downs. The stories represent our memories of what makes us who we are. The story is constantly changing.
An enduring concern for warm interpersonal encounters for their own sake.
A means of inquiry in which the personality psychologist attempts to apply a personality theory to a single person's life.
Social coognitive perspectives
Theoretical views emphasizing conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals.
Describing the way behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors interact to create personality.
Internal locus of control
A sense of behavior control as coming from inside the person.
Your actions and decisions affect the consequences.
External locus of control
A sense of behavior control as coming from outside the person.
Control from powerful others, luck, or fate.
The belief that one can accomplish a given goal or task and produce positive change.
Mischel's situation-trait interaction
There is no evidence for cross-situational consistency in behavior - and thus no evidence for the existence of personality. Traits do not predict behavior.
Personality is determined by the situation.
Personality traits are predictive in weak situations (hanging out with friends) but not in strong situations (at a funeral)
Some people are consistent on some traits; other people are consistent on others
Delay of gratification
Putting off a pleasurable experience in the interest of some larger but greater reward.
Cognitive affective processing systems (CAPS)
Model for describing that individuals' thoughts and emotions about themselves and the world affect their behavior and become linked in ways that matter to that behavior.
People respond in a way that makes them look good.
One of four basic personalities based on levels of particular bodily fluids.
Happy, optimistic, an abundance of blood.
Quick tempered, too much yellow bile.
Placid, sluggish, too much phlegm (mucus)
Pessimist, too much black bile.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.
Most widely used personality inventory test. 567 questions.
Reticular activation system (RAS) theory
All of us share an optimal arousal level, at which we feel comfortably engages with the world.
RAS of extraverts are under-aroused, below the optimal level.
RAS of introverts are over-aroused, above the optimal level.
Reinforcement sensitivity theory
The behavioral activation system (BAS) is sensitive to rewards in the environment, predisposes one to feelings of positive emotion, the underlying trait of extraversion.
The behavioral inhibition system (BIS) is sensitive to punishments and is involved in avoidance learning; it predisposes individuals to feelings of fear and underlies the trait of neuroticism.
The study of the inherited underpinnings of behavioral characteristics.
Also called an objective test or an inventory, a method of measuring personality characteristics that directly asks people whether specific items describe their personality traits.
Empirically keyed test
A type of self-report test that presents many questionnaire items to two groups that are known to be different in some way.
Neuroticism extraversion openness personality inventory (NEOPIR)
A self-report test geared to assessing the five factor model. Also evaluates six subdimensions that make up the five main factors.
The extent to which a test item appears to fit the particular trait it is measuring.
A personality assessment test that presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and asks them to describe it or tell a story about it - to project their own meaning onto the stimulus.
Rorschach inkblot test
A famous projective test that uses an individual's perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality.
Low reliability, low validity.
Thematic apperception test (TAT)
Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan.
A projective test that is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual's personality.
Higher reliability and validity.
Reveals needs for achievement, affiliation, power, intimacy.
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