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Genetics

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Heredity
the passage of traits from parents to offspring.
Allele
different forms of a gene, which produce variations in a genetically inherited trait.
Genetics
the study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles.
Hybrid
an offspring that was given different genetic information for a trait from each parent. Ex. Tt, Dd, Ff (also called Heterozygous)
Dominant
describes trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait (and shows its specific trait even if only one parent passed the gene to its offspring).
Recessive
describes a trait that is covered over, or dominated, by another form of that trait and seems to disappear (except when both parents pass that gene to their offspring).
Punnett Square
a tool to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring that shows the different ways alleles can combine.
Genotype
an organisms genetic makeup, expressed in uppercase and lowercase letters for dominant and recessive alleles. Ex. TT, tt, Tt, DD, Dd, dd
Phenotype
an outward physical appearance or behavior of an organism, expressed in words. Ex. Brown hair, green eyes, red flower, tall horse.
Homozygous
describes an organism with two alleles that are the same for a trait - one from mom and the other from dad are the same. Ex. TT, tt.
Heterozygous
describes an organism with two different alleles for a trait - one from mom and a different one from dad. Ex. Tt.
Mutation
genes that are altered or copied incorrectly.