Sociology Chapter 9 - Global Stratification
Terms in this set (57)
Patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole.
First World Nation
were said to consist of the rich, industrialized nations that primarily had capitalist economic systems and democratic political systems.
The most frequently noted First World nations = United States, Canada, Japan, Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand.
Second World Nations
countries with at least a moderate level of economic development and a moderate standard of living = China, North Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, and portions of the former Soviet Union.
Third World Nations
the poorest countries, with little or no industrialization and the lowest standards of living, shortest life expectancies, and highest rates of mortality = Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Niger, and Sierra Leone.
nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor
have a GNI per capita of less than $2500
49 countries across Central and East Africa and Asia
agrarian with some industry, reside in villages and farms
Middle Income Countries
nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole
have a per capita GNI between $2500 and $12,500
52% live in or near cities
48% in rural areas, most are poor
72 countries = Eastern Europe, most of Asia, South America, South Africa, China, India
the nations with the highest overall standards of living
GNI per capita > $12,500
US, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Western EU, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Russia, Malaysia, Australia, NZ
75% live in or near cities
even poor people have higher standard living than half people in middle-income countries and almost all in low-income countries
control advanced technology and control the global economy
a condition in which people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life
people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living
some people lack resources that are taken for granted by others
exists in every society, rich or poor
Slavery - Types
Slavery imposed by state
Servile forms of marriage
one person owns another
slavery imposed by the state
a govt imposes forced labor on people convicted of criminal violations or on others simply because the government needs their labor.
Desperately poor families let their children take to the streets to beg or steal or do whatever they can to survive.
Employer pays wages to workers that are less than what the employer charges the workers for company-provided food and housing.
Servile forms of marriage
Families marry off women against their will. (End up as slaves working for husband's family, others are forced into prostitution).
Moving of men, women, and children from one place to another for the purpose of performing forced labor.
Global Poverty, Explanations of
2. Population growth
3. Cultural Patterns
4. Social Stratification
5. Gender Inequality
6. Global Power Relationships
Global Poverty: Technology
with limited energy sources, economic production is modest
Global Poverty: Population growth
Poorest countries have the world's highest birth rates
Global Poverty: Cultural Patterns
Poor societies are usually traditional - resist change, even if it creates a better life
Global Poverty: Social Stratification
Low-income nations distribute their wealth very unequally
Global Poverty: Gender Inequality
Keeps women from holding jobs, which typically means they have many children.
Global Poverty: Global Power Relationships
Wealth flowed from poor nations to rich nations through colonialism.
Exploitation allowed nations to develop economically at the expense of other nations.
the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations.
a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control, but economic exploitation by multinational corporations
Large business that operates in many countries.
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations
low-income, less-developed nations can improve their standard of living only with a period of intensive economic growth and accompanying changes in people's beliefs, values, and attitudes toward work.
Modernization theory - history
industrial technology and the spirit of capitalism created new wealth
Modernization theory - greatest barrier
is greatest barrier to economic development
Four Stages of Modernization
See "Modernization - Four Stages"
Modernization - Four Stages
1. Traditional Stage
2. Take-off Stage
3. Technological Maturity
4. High Mass Consumption
traditional society = honor the past
very little social change takes place, and people do not think much about changing their current circumstances
people produce goods not just for own use but also to trade with others for profit
a period of economic growth accompanied by a growing belief in individualism, competition, and achievement.
Drive to Technological Maturity
At this point, the country will improve its technology, reinvest in new industries, and embrace the beliefs, values, and social institutions of the high-income, developed nations.
absolute poverty reduced
focus on work = less personal relationships
provide basic schooling for people
social position of women approaches that of men
High Mass Consumption
economic development steadily raises living standards as mass production stimulates mass consumption.
Modernization - role of rich nations:
rich countries produce wealth through capital investment and new technology
Increasing food production
Introducing Industrial technology
Providing foreign aid
Rich countries can help limit birth increase by exporting birth control technology and promoting its use.
Increasing food production:
Rich nations can export high tech farming methods to poor nations to help increase agricultural yields.
Introducing Industrial technology:
Rich nations can encourage economic growth in poor societies by introducing machinery and information technology, raise productivity.
Providing foreign aid:
Investment capital from rich nations can boost the prospects of poor societies trying to reach Rostow's take-off stage.
modernization theory - negatives
1. modernization has simply not occurred in many poor countries
2. it fails to recognize how rich nations, which benefit from the status quo, often block the path to development for poor countries
3. treats rich and poor societies as separate worlds, ignoring the fact that a single global economy affects all nations.
4. establishes the world's most developed countries as the standard for judging the rest of humanity, revealing an ethnocentric bias.
5. suggests that the causes of global poverty lie almost entirely within the poor societies themselves.
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones.
the sun never sets on the British empire = colonialism has disappeared from world but political liberation has not translated into economic independence
Dependency theory - history
people living in poor countries were actually better off economically in the past than their descendants are now
Wallerstein's Capitalist World Economy
the prosperity of some nations and the poverty and dependency of other countries result from a global economic system
Rich nations are the core of world economy.
Low-income countries are the periphery of world economy.
Poor countries support rich ones by providing inexpensive labor and a vast market for industrial products.
middle-income countries are semi periphery of the world economy. (In between)
*the world economy benefits rich societies (by generating profits) and harms the rest of the world (by causing poverty) - makes poor nations dependent on rich ones
Dependency involves three factors:
Narrow, export-oriented economies
Lack of industrial capacity
Narrow, export-oriented economies:
Poor nations produce only a few crops to export to rich nations.
Lack of industrial capacity:
poor societies face a double bind:
- count on rich nations to to buy their inexpensive raw materials
- must then try to buy from rich nations the few expensive manufactured goods they can afford.
Unequal trade patterns have plunged poor countries into debt.
Dependency theory - role of rich nations
rich nations have overdeveloped themselves as they have underdeveloped the rest of world
Lappe, Frances Moore and Collins, Joseph
Capitalist culture of the U.S encourages people to think of poverty as somehow inevitable.
Dependency theory - negatives
1. wrongly treats wealth as if no one gets richer without someone else getting poorer
2. wrong in blaming rich nations for global poverty because many of the world's poorest countries have had little contact with rich nations
3. simplistic for pointing the finger at the capitalist market alone as the cause of global inequality
4. wrong to claim that global trade always makes rich richer and poor poorer
5. offers only vague solutions to global poverty
Statistics: Richest 20% of the global population
receives 77% of world income.
Statistics: Poorest 20% of the US population
earns 4% of the national income.
Statistics: In rich societies,
more than 85% of people reach to be 65
Statistics: In the world's poorest countries,
the odds of living to 65 are less than 1 in 3.
Statistics: 215 million children
are working as child laborers, half of whom are forced to do hazardous work.
Statistics: In Maurtania, an African nation...
500,000 people are enslaved. Which is 20% of the population.