1,004 terms

AP European History Final Review


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Nicholas II
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
Last Tsarist of Russia, had a son who was a hemophiliac, and was put under the influence of Rasputin, where he exploited her. Ended up causing the collapse of the Tsars
Grigori Rasputin
a Siberian preacher who became friends of the Tsars, but hated by the public, twisted and cheated and exploited Alexandra.
Alexander Kerensky
An agrarian socialist who became prime minister. He refused to confiscate land holdings and felt that continuation of war was most important.
Anton Denikin
Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Army and foremost general for the White Russians in the Russian civil war.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin)
opponent of Tsarist Russia, began to immerse himself in Marxian socialist ideas as a law student. He then went on to form the Bolsheviks, and tried to start a revolution in July 1917. It failed, he went into hiding, but regrouped in Petrograd, where he and his partner Trotsky gained power. He then moved on government buildings, and was declared the head of the new Bolshevik government.
Leon Trotsky
Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution
Nikolai Bukharin
Bolshevik revolutionary and political and intellectual thinker for Stalin. Supported the NEP
Joseph Dzhugashvili (Stalin)
Dictator of Russia, named man of steel. Was of lowly backgrounds but rose to power. Only in it for himself. Created 5 year plans.
Sergei Kirov
A Political opponent of Stalin's who was executed for being more popular that Stalin
Benito Mussolini
Fascist Dictator of Italy that at first used bullying to gain power, then never had full power.
Victor Emmanuel III
King of Italy who gave Mussolini legitimacy as dictator
Heinrich Brüning
The German chancellor during the Weimar Republic who convinced the president to accept rule by decree
Adolf Hitler
Austrian born Dictator of Germany, implement Fascism and caused WWII and Holocoust.
Karl Lueger
Mayor of Vienna whom Hitler idolized
Hermann Göring
A Nazi politician and president of the Reichstag
Rudolf Hess
Deputy to Hitler in the Nazi party person who dictated Mein Kampf
Joseph Goebbels
Chief minister of the Nazi propaganda, and organizer of Kristallnacht
Paul von Hindenburg
President of the Weimar Republic of Germany who appointed Hitler Chancellor in 1933
Franz von Papen
Chancellor of Germany who succeeded Bruning
Heinrich Himmler
Inhumane and cruel leader of the SS in Germany, appointed by Hitler
Neville Chamberlain
Great British prime minister who advocated peace and a policy of appeasement
Francisco Franco
Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini
Antonio de Oliveira Salzar
served as the Prime Minister and dictator of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He founded and led the Estado Novo ("New State"), the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal from 1932 to 1974.
Josef Pilsudaski
was the authoritarian ruler of the Second Polish Republic. From mid-World War I he was a major influence in Poland's politics, and an important figure on the broader European political scene. He is considered largely responsible for Poland regaining independence in 1918, after a hundred and twenty-three years of partitions
Béla Kun
was a Hungarian Communist politician who ruled Hungary as leader of the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919
Elie Halévy
was a French philosopher and historian who wrote Era of Tyrannies, which talked about the different kinds of government and how they all stemmed out of nature of modern war.
Henri-Philippe Pétain
French leader of the Vichy republic of France, which was essentially Nazi France. He is seen as a traitor to his people by some Frenchman.
Reasons for Russian weakness
These were the reasons of bad leadership, and lack of organized or effective army
Russia's lower house of politics
Relationship between Alexandra & Rasputin / Rasputin's assassination
He used her to gain politically and to gain money for sex and drugs. He was then "assassinated" aka tried to be killed something like 8 times, then thrown in a river.
Russian (March) Revolution/ Provisional Government
The revolution of the unplanned overthrowing of the Tsarist government, and the government that followed the revolution.
Petrograd Soviet
the political party with whom the Provisional Government had to share power with
Army Order Number 1
Given by the Provisional Government, this stripped the army officers of power, and placed it in hand of elected committees. This collapsed army discipline
The two rival communists groups. One weree true revolutionary Marxists, and the other were revisionist socialists.
Bolshevik (October) Revolution
Replaces the Provisional Government with Lenin's forces
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Document that announced the withdrawal of Russia from WWI
"White" forces
The opposition to the Bolsheviks and the Red army after the October rebellion and the Russian Revolution
Reasons for Bolshevik victory
Three reasons anarchy was about and any person could create power; the Bolsheviks had better leaders; the Bolsheviks appealed to many workers
War Communism
The political idea that applied the total war concept on a civil conflict
The old Tsarist secret police
is a concept used to describe political systems whereby a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life. These regimes or movements maintain themselves in political power by means of an official all-embracing ideology and propaganda disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, a single party that controls the state, personality cults, control over the economy, regulation and restriction of free discussion and criticism, the use of mass surveillance, and widespread use of state terrorism. These states always have to be at war with something
Conservative Authoritarianism
Traditional form of antidemocratic government
Radical Dictatorships
leaders who violently rejected parliamentary restraint and liberal values, as well as exercised unprecedented control over masses and sought to mobilize them for war.
Kronstadt Rebels
Unsuccessful uprising of sailors, soldiers, and civilians against Russian government (against Bolsheviks)
New Economic Policy
Lenin's economy reform that re-established economic freedom in an attempt to build agriculture and industry
Stalin's rise
He was totally focused on himself, double and tripled crossed, rose by gaining support of party
Five Year plans
Objectives were to increase industrial output by 250% and agriculture output by 150% and have 1/5 of Russian peasants on collective farms. The methods were forced farming and scare tactics like gulags. The success was that of industry, which produced 4 times as much as before
Soviet quality of life
Life was hard, there was no improvement in the average standard of living, but unemployment was unknown and communism had real appeal
Putting smaller farms together into one large farm so as to increase productivity
The well off peasants who were starved or shipped to the gulags
Ukrainian Famine
The forced famine of Ukraine by Stalin over not producing enough grain
Stalinization of culture
The acceptance of Stalin though propaganda
Great Purges
Stalin's mass systemic murder of millions to instill fear and to have someone to fight against
"Socialism in one country"
Idea that the Soviet Union had the ability to build socialism on its own
Women in totalitarian states
They were given more rights and had complete equality of rights
was an international Communist organization founded in Moscow in March 1919. The International intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State."
is a radical, authoritarian nationalist ideology that aims to create a single-party state with a government led by a dictator who seeks national unity and development by requiring individuals to subordinate self-interest to the collective interest of the nation or race.
Mussolini's Black Shirts
These were Mussolini's bullies who pushed socialist out of Northern Italy
Lateran Agreement
In this, Mussolini recognized the Vatican as an independent state, and gave it heavy financial support
Hitler's Rise
Gained power through feeding off others, and promoting racist nationalist ideals. Gained control of the German Worker's Party, built his way up from there
Beer Hall Putsch
An armed uprising in Munich of maybe 50 people at most, crushed, Hitler's idea
Mein Kampf
Hitler's book in which he outlined his ideas on race, living space, and the Fuhrer
Hitler's goals
He wanted to declare the superiority of Aryan race, create more living space for them, and make himself eternal supreme dictator for life
(German for "habitat" or literally "living space") served as a major motivation for Nazi Germany's territorial aggression. In his book Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum (for a Grossdeutschland, land, and raw materials), and that it should be taken in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, Germanize or enslave the Polish, and later also Russian and other Slavic populations, and to repopulate the land with reinrassig Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.
Nazi racial theories
Felt that Aryan white people were most superior, Scandinavian were 2nd best, French were 3rd, and the slavs, jews, and pretty much the rest were the worst
Reichstag fire & fallout
Hitler used this to launch his dictatorship and used this to give him power. It was a fire of a capital building
Enabling Act
Gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for 4 years
Nuremburg Laws
Laws that classified a jew as someone having one or more jewish grandparent
A night of violence and vandalism against Jews
Hitler's Popularity - how popular & why
Hitler was popular for promising economic recovery and delivering it
Goldhagen Thesis
This said that ordinary Germans not only knew about, but also supported, the Holocaust because of a unique and virulent "eliminationist" anti-Semitism in the German identity, which had developed in the preceding centuries
Rhineland remilitarization
when Germany moved into the Rhineland and beefed up the military, Britain and France still wanted appeasement and did nothing
The idea that Britain could pacify Germany and make sure there was no war at any cost.
Austrian Anschluss
The forceful union of Austria into Germany
Hitler's Foreign Policy
Made friends with Italy, did stuff behind the table with Russia, and hated everyone else.
The area near Czechoslovakia that was mainly German ethnicity that Germany took.
Munich Conference
An agreement/conference that gave Germany the Sudetenland
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
The three countries of Italy, Germany, and Japan allied together
Polish Corridor
The strip of Poland that the Germans wanted to take, specifically Danzig
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other
Grand Alliance - members & goals
The members of the Grand alliance were America, Britain, and the Soviet Union; their goals were to Smash the aggressors, Europe first, then Asia
Course of WWII
First war in Europe, then war in Asia
A mass flee of British troops of the coast of France, disaster, lost thousands of machines and vehicles
Decisive battle in German invasion of Russia, the Germans were surrounded and systemically destroyed
El Alamein
Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria
An important invasion that lead to the removal of Mussolini from government, only to have him put back later
The most important battle in the European part of the war, allies stormed beaches and made it through to the mainland, landing in France and moving towards Germany
An important battle in the Asian part of the war, the Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers
Iwo Jima
One of the Bloodiest battles in the war, a fight to the death for Japanese soldiers, as the Americans were coming closer to Japan
Final Solution / Holocaust
was Nazi Germany's plan and execution of its systematic genocide against European Jewry during World War II, resulting in the final, most deadly phase of the Holocaust
A-bombs - Hiroshima, Nagasaki
The final straw for the Japanese, resulting in millions of civilian and military death. Little Boy and Fat Man were used here. These flew on the plane "The Enola Gay"
Paul Valéry
French poet and critic that spoke of a "crisis of the mind," and "a dark future for Europe"
Friedrich Nietzsche
German philosopher who said that "God is dead," that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation. Also stated that from this meaninglessness people called Supermen would exert their mind on other and rise to power. he appealed to people who liked totalitarianism.
Georges Sorel
A French socialist who thought there socialism would come from a general strike of all workers that would cripple the capitalist system. Thought that socialism was an improbable religion rather than accepted truth. Thought that the new socialist governments would not be democratic, rather controlled by a small revolutionary elite. He did not like democracy.
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Was an Austrian philosopher and a logical empiricist who argued in Essay on Logical Philosophy that great philosophical questions like god freedom and morality were "quite literally senseless."
Henri Bergson
A French philosophy professor who said that personal experiences and intuition were more important than rational thought and thinking
Jean Paul Sartre
A French existentialist who said that people just "turned up" and that there was no God to help honest people. Also said "man is condemned to be free" and people had to choose their actions.
Søren Kierkegaard
Danish religious philosopher who made a total religious commitment to a remote and majestic god, after rejecting formalistic religion
Karl Barth
A Swiss Protestant theologian who said people were sinful and that religious truth was made know to humans only through God's grace, and people just had to accept God as true and be obedient.
Gabriel Marcel
Leading existential Christian thinker, thought catholic church was "hope, humanity, honesty, and piety," after broken world and WWI, also advocated closer ties with non-Catholics
Marie Curie
A Polish physicist who, with French husband Pierre, discovered radium emits subatomic particles
Albert Einstein
German-Jewish physicist that undermined Newtonian physics and developed theory of relativity
Max Planck
German physicist who proved that subatomic energy was emitted from particles, he called them "quanta"
Werner Heisenberg
A German physicist that speculated that there was no real certainty in where an electron was, and only tendencies. This broke down Newton's dependable laws to only probabilities.
Sigmund Freud
The love of my life. Said that there were three points were man was stripped of his specialness. Copernicus said that man was not center of universe; Darwin said that man is not God's special creation; and Freud said that man is savage. Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things, Id and Superego. All of this is going on the subconscious. His most controversial idea was that all humans are sexual beings and have sexual desires. Then he said there were three phases of human development the Oral phase, the Anal phase, and the Oedipal phase. After WWI it became ok to talk about Freud's ideas.
James Joyce
An Irish novelist who wrote Ulysses, a stream of consciousness book that mirrored Homer's book
Oswald Spengler
an obscure German high school teacher who wrote Decline of the West, said the west was about to be conquered by Asians.
Walter Gropius
German architect who broke form previous design with light, airy, bright buildings of glass and iron
Claude Monet
a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting
Pierre Auguste Renoir
a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting
Vincent Van Gogh
A Dutch expressionist who painted a "moving visions in his mind's eye"
Paul Gaugin
French stockbroker turned painter, pioneered expressionist techniques and fled to South Pacific
Paul Cézanne
A postimpressionist and expressionist who had a profound impact on 20th century art and committed to form
Henrí Matisse
An extreme abstract expressionist, leader of "the beasts," focused on arrangement of color, line and form
Pablo Picasso
a Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes
Wassily Kandinski
Russia painter who "turned away from nature" and focused on nonrepresentational, abstract art
Igor Stravinsky
composer, wrote Rite of Spring, expressionist ballet, shocked crowds because of music and scenes
Alban Berg
composer of opera Wozzeck, atonal music with half spoken, half sung dialogue, violence and expression
Arnold Schönberg
Viennese founder of 12 tone music and turned back on conventional tones
John Maynard Keynes
Young English economist who denounced Treaty of Versailles and said that people needed to revise treaty and help German econ. He Wrote Economic Consequences of the Peace. Said Britain needed Germany, and if the German market went under, Britain econ would go under. His book was one of the major reasons that the British were sympathetic towards Germany.
Raymond Poincaré
French Prime Minister who moved and occupied into the Ruhr to collect war reparations
Gustav Stresemann
German Foreign Minister who assumed leadership of government and got the French to move out of the Ruhr
Leon Blum
Leader of the French socialist party Popular Front, made first and real attempt to deal with the economic and social problems
Psycho-social impact of WWI
Social Impact was impact on social class structures and breakdown of aristocracy and other inter class structures. After the war more people did not have servants. The Psycho impact was that people viewed humanity as both savage and pointless, because they just fought a pointless war
Logical Empiricism
The philosophical ideology that simply rejected the concerns of modern philosophy, like god and morality. Mainly started with Austrian philosopher Wittgenstein.
The idea that human beings simply exist, have no higher purpose, and must exist and choose their actions for themselves. Existentialism mainly influenced by Nietzsche. Existentialism sustain popularity in Germany with Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers who appealed to university students.
Christian Revival
Was a reaction to the loss of faith in humans, which came from the war, and lead to renewed interest in Christian view of the world. Major people were Kierkegaard, Barth, and Marcel.
The New Physics
Pioneered by the Curies, Plank and Einstein, a new view of physics that shattered the perfect world of Newtonian physics and made the world seem much more random and not as much certainty.
Uncertainty Principle
The idea that we do know no anything for certain and all we know is possibilities, probabilities, and tendencies. Put forth by German physicist Heisenberg.
Id, Ego, Superego
Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things, Id and Superego. All of this is going on the subconscious.
Oedipal Complex
A Freudian physiological idea that if you did not get over loving your parent of the opposite sex, you would have this complex where you hated your other parent and have issues with parental relations.
Literary technique that explored the psyche through different idea randomly bubbling up in a story.
A new principle of building design that focused on buildings being functional which means serving the purpose it was made for best
A Weimar (German) architectural school created by Walter Gropius which combined the fine arts and functionalism
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing
An artistic movement that expressed world that could not normally be seen, like dreams and fantasy.
An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.
An artistic movement that focused on expressing emotion and feelings through abstract images and colors, lines and shapes.
An artistic movement that had a purposely nonsensical name, expressing its total rejection of previous modern art.
An artistic movement that displayed vivid dream worlds and fantastic unreal images
British-French Tensions
differences between French and British were over the treatment of the Germans, specifically on the payment of reparations
The Little Entente
The French alliance between the smaller countries of Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.
Ruhr Crisis 1923
When France occupied the Ruhr coal fields to demand that the German pay their reparations
When the German economy tried to print bills to pay off their debt, inflation rates of 40% a day
Dawes Plan
The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible
Locarno Pact / Spirit of Locarno
The pact was an agreement to define the border between France and Germany, and in which Britain and Italy would gang up on the aggressor if the treaty was broken. The spirit was this feeling that war could be stopped again by peace talks that settled in Europe after the pact
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Was a pact that said that just said was bad, but did not outline any method for preventing war.
Labor-Liberal-Conservative Cooperation in Britain
The three party system that makes sure that both the conservative and the labor party don't get too radical.
Great Depression - Causes, efforts to deal with
The immediate cause was the American using margin buying to buy shares of stock that they could not pay back, and forced a mass selloff of shares, which collapsed the stock market and the economy. The efforts to deal was the New Deal in America, and different stances of social programs and socialism in Europe.
Social Democrats
The largest political party in Sweden, who pushed for social reform legislation, and drew support from community and socialist and capitalist working together.
Popular Front
was the French political alliance that allied the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals together.
The Middle Way
The Scandinavian system of in the middle of socialism and capitalism, an ideology that you can have some of your own things and keep some of your money, and have higher tax rates.
This was the name given to the Spanish explorers who would conquer the land they discovered and utilize the resources they found there for Spain
"Crown from the gutter"
This was the expression used after the Revolutions of 1848 where Friedrich Wilhelm refused to just take the throne of Prussia
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
The motto of the French Revolution and the demands of the popular people
"Separation of powers"
This was the theory developed by Montesquieu that political power should not be divided and share by a variety of classes and legal estates holding unequal rights and privileges
"Spanish Armada"
This was the vast amount of ships sent by Phillip II to attack England because of the conflicts between Phillip II and Mary, Queen of Scots
"Universal Man"
This was the term given to those in the Renaissance who were able to excel in more than one subject matter
19th century class structure
Aristocracy > Middle Class (Upper > Middle > Lower) > Working Classes (Labor Aristocracy > Semiskilled > Unskilled)
Alexander I
This czar of Russia wanted to restore the kingdom of Poland, which he wanted to bestow the benefits of his rule
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
This was the work that started the tabula rasa theory where the human mind is blank until it is filled with experiences that allow a person to think differently
These were the "radicals" in Reformation in which someone would choose if they wanted to be baptized
This scientist spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method
Banking Families
These were the major families in Europe that had the most power and control of the wealth in a state
Battle of Austerlitz
This massive victory by the French caused Russia and the Austrians to suspend their support against France
Battle of Waterloo
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
Bentham (Utilitarianism)
This man believed that the moral worth of an action is determined by its contribution to happiness as summed among all persons
The artist shows the ideal for female beauty in the Renaissance in this work slender, pale skin, a high forehead, red-blond hair, and sloping shoulders
This was the physicist who said nothing can be known beyond all doubt
Brumaire Coup and The Consulate
This is the act in which Napoleon ended the Directory by ousting the Directors and disbanding the legislature. He then established a strong military dictatorship in place of the weak Directory
He was an architect who designed a hospital for orphans and foundlings set up by the silk-workers guild in Florence
This explorer first saw the mainland of Brazil and claimed it for Portugal while sailing to set up trading posts in India
These were groups of secret revolutionary societies in Italy
Cardinal Mazarin
This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies
Cardinal Richelieu
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
Causes of the French Revolution
1) The economic and financial crisis that led to the calling of the Estates General. 2) The political incompetence of Louis XV and XVI. 3) The unfair taxation between the three estates
This man was a poet, playwright and novelist and wrote one of the best known novels ever (Don Quixote)
Their demand was universal male suffrage
Charles Darwin
This was the scientist who published the theory of evolution after his travels to the Galapagos Islands
Charles II
This was the king that took the throne during the Restoration and peacefully had agreements with the Parliament until he made secret agreements with Louis XIV to relax the laws against the English Catholics and eventually a Catholic became the next king
Charles Talleyrand
This was the French supporter of Metternich's balance of power idea
Charles V
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
This was the man who discovered Americas while originally looking for a faster and all-sea route to the East but instead landed in the West Indies.
Combination Acts
These were the laws passed by the Parliament that prohibited the English people from forming a union
Commercial revolution
This was the period of economic and political expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that occurred in Europe
Committee of Public Safety
This was the group that carried out the Reign of Terror
Concert of Europe (Congress System)
This was the system set up by the Quadruple Alliance to meet periodically to talk about common issues
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Congress of Vienna
This was the meeting between the Quadruple Alliance in order to formulate a peace agreement and to balance the victories of the Napoleonic wars
This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
This was the man who first theorized that the celestial bodies all revolved around a fixed sun
Corn Laws
These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially
Cosmo deMedici
One of the members of the banker family of Florence that ruled behind the scenes of the government
Cottage industry
This was the way form of work of the rural classes in which the costumer would give the worker materials and the worker would create the desirable product
Council of Trent
This was the meeting called by Pope Paul III that secured reconciliation with the Protestants
da Gama
This was the first explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope and sail into the Indian Ocean trade
Da Vinci
One of the best examples of a Renaissance man. He painted, wrote, sculpted, invented, among his philosophical ideas
First comedy writer that wrote 100 verses that described the realms of the next world
One of the leaders of The Mountain
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
This was a way of thinking that God exists, but does not intervene in daily life, for he already has a plan for the universe that cannot be altered
This thinker developed a philosophy of two different worlds a material world and a world of the mind. This was called Cartesian dualism. He combined his ideas with Bacon to form the scientific method
This was the philosophical belief that for every thesis ever, there is an opposing antithesis that creates a synthesis
This was the first explorer who rounded the southern tip of the Cape of Good Hope but was never able to go all the way around
Diet of Worms
This was the conference that Charles V called to bring Martin Luther to speak
The ruler of Venice
One of the first and best Renaissance sculptors. He was also one of the first artists to sell his works
Dutch Revolt
This was the revolt by the Netherland against the Spanish in order to create their independent state
Edict of Nantes
This was the document published by Henry IV that granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to the Huguenots
Edward VI
During his short reign of England, Protestant ideas exerted a significant influence on the religious life of the country
Edwin Chadwick
This was a public health official who wrote reports on the poor living conditions of the cities and believed that poverty was caused by illnesses
Effects of the Scientific Revolution
This involved the beginning of using reason to solve problems in the community by using inductive and deductive reasoning
El Cid
This was the Spanish equivalent to the Knights of the Round Table
Eli Whitney
This man invented the cotton gin which allowed for the faster picking of cotton in the Americas
Elizabeth I
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
This work advocated breast feeding and natural dress and that boys' education should have plenty of fresh air and exercise and he said a women's nature was a life of marriage and child rearing
Emile Zola
This was an influential French writer who wrote about naturalism and was often criticized
Enclosure movement
This was the way that the English landowners would now organize their land so that the farmers would become more productive in their work
This was the first publication of different essays about the culture and society of France which was put on the Index of Forbidden Books because it dealt with controversial issues
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished
This man was a writer who would plea for simple Christian faith and would criticize the complexity of Catholic faith
This was the group of people called by Louis XVI that would keep the king in check like the English Parliament
Evolutionary Socialism
This was the work that suggested that socialists should combine with other progressive forces to win gradual evolutionary gains for workers through legislation, unions, and further economic development
Favorable balance of trade
This was the ideology that most states used to gain the most money from their exports by increasing the amount of finished materials while decreasing the amount of raw materials
Ferdinand and Isabella
This was the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition
Francesco Sforza
The Duke of Florence and the old ruler of the city-states of Italy
Francis I
This was the French king who reached an agreement with Pope Leo X and allowed the French king to select French bishops and abbots
Francis Xavier
This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity
Francois Guizot
This man was an active player in the French Revolution of 1848 who helped in the overthrow of Charles X
Franz Liszt
This was a pianist in the Romanticism era that was a star in his day
Frederick Elector of Saxony
This was the man who supported and hid Luther after the Diet of Worms
Frederick the Great
This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler
Frederick William (The Great Elector)
This was the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler.
Frederick William IV
This king of Prussia was the king who gave into Prussia's constitution
This scientist formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon
Georg Hegel
This man believed that each age is characterized by a dominant set of ideas, which produces opposing ideas and a new synthesis
Georges Haussmann
This was the man who planned the reconstruction of Paris
This is the political faction in Italy that supported the Holy Roman Empire
An artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body
These were the liberals of France who did not want to execute Louis XVI, but The Mountain did anyway
Giuseppe Mazzini
This early Italian nationalist believed that doing labor for the principles of one's country is labor for humanity
Glorious Revolution
This was the "revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed
Gold Glory and God
This was the motto of the age of exploration. The explorers were looking for money, glory, or to convert non-Christians
Greek revolution
The Greeks revolted against the Ottomans for their independence, to which the Concert generally opposed to this
This is the political faction in Italy that supported the pope
Habeas Corpus Act
This was act in which any people unlawfully detained could be prosecuted
This was the royal dynasty of Austria that ruled over a vast part of Central Europe while battling with the Turks over Hungary
This was the man who first detailed the accounted for the circulation of blood flow
Henry Bessemer
This man revolutionized the way to manufacture steel by making the process quicker and more efficient
Henry IV of France
This was the king who issued the Edict of Nantes
Henry VIII
This was the man who started the Church of England because he needed a reformation in Catholicism which would allow him to divorce his wife
This was the royal dynasty of electors in Prussia
Holy Alliance
This was the alliance between Austria Prussia and Russia on the crusade against the ideas and politics of the dual revolution.
House of Orange
This was the house that took over the English throne after the Glorious Revolution
These were the French Calvinists that were often persecuted until the Edict of Nantes
The philosophy of the liberal arts that emphasized human beings and their achievements
A man who helped to shed some light on the church's problems with hurting the people that follow the religion. He was seen as a radical and was not allowed to study John Wycliffe's publications yet was executed after he was tried for heresy
Ignatius of Loyola
This was the man who started the Jesuit movement to help people to find God around the world
Index of Prohibited Literature
This was the list of books that were prohibited by the papacy in order to stop more religious thinkers
Institutes of the Christian Religion
This was the work by John Calvin that described to the world the ideology of John Calvin
This was the group of people in the National Assembly that met to discuss the political questions of the day
James Hargreaves
This was the man who created the spinning jenny which began the actual Industrial Revolution and the beginning of machines doing a man's work
James II
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
Jean Bodin
This was the man who created the theory of sovereignty in which a state becomes sovereign by claiming a monopoly over the instruments of justice
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
This man developed the first cohesive theory of evolution after his studies of biology
This was the group of people that was important in converting Asians and Latin Americans to Catholicism which allowed for the mass spread of Christianity
Johann Gutenberg
Man who created the printing press and changed the production and reading of books
Johann Tetzel
This was the man who was hired by Archbishop Albert of Mainz to sell indulgences, which he did extremely successfully
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
This German Romantic poet influence Walter Scott
John Calvin
This was another leader in the Reformation who believed in a simple faith and a simple method of worship
John Constable (The Haywain)
This man was a Romantic painter
John Kay
Man who revolutionized the one-hand loom and increased the production done by one worker
John Knox
This was the man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland so that ministers ran the church, not bishops
Joseph II
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
Joseph Lister
This man promoted the idea of sterilizing medical equipment before operating
July Decrees
These decrees limited the voting rights of the wealthy and censored the press
June Days
These were the French workers' revolts in 1848 after the closure of the National Workshops
This philosopher showed the overall attitude of the Enlightenment by saying "have the courage to use your own understanding"
Karl Marx
This man came up with the idea of communism/dialectic socialism that said that two classes have always battled against each other to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
Karlsbad Decrees
These decrees required the thirty-eight German member states to root out subversive ideas in the universities and newspapers an established a permanent committee with spies and informers to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations
This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
Labor aristocracy
This was the union of skilled workers in the working classes that had a set behavioral code. They were usually run by construction bosses and factory foremen
Laissez-faire capitalism
This was the style of capitalism in which the government had no interference with the economy
Lajos Kossuth
This man was a Hungarian nationalist leader who demanded independence and a constitution
Liberalism (Classical Liberalism)
This was the political idea in which the government did not intervene in the economy and liberty and equality were stressed
Liberty Leading the People (Delacroix)
This work of art shows the glory of the French Revolution
Line of Demarcation
This was the line drawn by Alexander VI that gave Portugal most of Brazil and Spain the rest of South America
Lord Byron
This English poet joined the Greeks and died fighting so that they may be free
Lorenzo the Magnificent
This was an artistic patron that spent vast sums on family chapels, frescoes, religious panels and
Louis Blanc
This man urged people to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully
Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)
This was the first French president as a result of the election after the Revolution of 1848
Louis Pasteur
This was the man who began studying fermentation to develop a way to avoid spoilage through pasteurization by heating the beverage
Louis XIII
This French king appointed Cardinal Richelieu
Louis XIV
This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France
This was the king of France before and after Napoleon's exile
These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
Ludwig van Beethoven
This pianist was considered the master of Romanticism music
This was the first person to lead an expedition that circumnavigated the world
Malthus (On Population)
This man said that population would always grow faster than the food supply and the only hope of warding o war, famine, and disease was that young men and women had to limit the growth of population by marrying late
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Martin Luther
This was the most famous and one of the first concrete reformer who began to reject some of the more obscure and selfish laws of the Catholic Church
Mary I
This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants
Mary Wollstonecraft
This was an English feminist who supported the women's revolution in France
He used light and dark imagery to illustrate different feelings and emotions
Meeting at Marburg
This was the meeting that tried to settle the dispute between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli over the presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper.
This movement said that all men and women who sought salvation might be saved, giving the people a message of hope
Miasma Theory / Germ Theory
These were the theories of the spread of disease. The miasma theory said that disease was spread by a bad odor. The new germ theory developed by Louis Pasteur said that diseases were spread by bacteria called germs
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Middle class values
The middle class frowned upon heavy drinking and the women were fond of fashion. Education was necessary and sexual purity was considered a virtue
Modern imperialism
This was the start of the building of foreign empires for trade and military advantages over other states
Modern liberalism
This was new thought that the governments should be subject to change. This was the counterpart to conservatism
Napoleonic Code
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
National Workshops
This was the group that gave work to the unemployed
This was the new feeling of pride for one's country after the Napoleonic era
Natural laws
These were conclusions reached by the philosophes against which debate was impossible
This was the other common crime in which the members of the church would give positions to relatives
This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
Ninety-five Theses
This was the letter Martin Luther wrote to Archbishop Albert which explained that indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance
Northern Humanism
This humanism philosophy interpreted Italian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity, individualism, and humanism in terms of their own traditions
Northwest Passage
This is the passage that many European explorers attempted but never succeeded to navigate to reach other nations more quickly
The rule of a nation or state by a few people
Oliver Cromwell
This was the dictator who ruled over England after the English civil war. His death provided the military government collapse of England
On Liberty (John Stuart Mill)
This work advocated economic and moral freedom of individuals from the state. This work is enormously influential to politics today
Paris Reconstruction
This was planned by Georges Haussmann, who was assigned by Napoleon III, to provide employment, improved living conditions, and to show the glory of the French empire
Partition of Poland
This was the splitting up of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria
Peace of Augsburg
This was the treaty that was reached that ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars which also made Charles V recognize Lutheranism as a legitimate following
Peace of Utrecht
This was the treaty that ended the War of the Spanish Succession
Peace of Westphalia
This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities
Peasants' War
This was the revolt that occurred in Germany where the peasants rebelled alongside the new Protestant thought. They were viciously quashed and the public appeal to the Reformation went substantially down
Peninsular War
This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence
Peter the Great
This was the czar of Russia that Westernized Russia and built up a massive Russian army. He also was interested in building grand cities like those in Western Europe
This was the extremely lopsided victory by English army over the protestors as a result of the Corn Laws
The man who began the humanism movement and he believed that he was living the start of new era
These were the types of buildings designed by Charles Fourier for a utopian society
Philip II of Spain
This was the king who started the success of Spain's foreign colonies
These were the French philosophers
Philosophy of the Enlightenment
This dealt with skepticism, the government, and the role of reason in everyday life
This was the group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
This socialist man believed that property is theft
This was a movement within Lutheranism that revived Protestantism that called for an emotional relationship, allowed for the priesthood of all believers, and the Christian rebirth in everyday affairs
Pope Alexander VI
This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
Pope Leo X
This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
Pope Paul III
This was the Pope that called the Council of Trent
Potato Famine
This was the famine that occurred in Ireland that killed of thousands of people because the main potato crop could not grow because of bad soil that year
Pragmatic Sanction
This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler
One of the main points of Calvinism that said that God had already determined if you were damned or saved
Prince Henry the Navigator
This was the Portuguese Prince that gave steadfast financial and moral support to the navigators
This was the working class in that was constantly battling against the bourgeois factory owners
This was caused by the strictness and the incompetence of the Catholic Church.
This was one of the reforms in England in which the leaders wanted all Catholic elements in the Church of England eliminated
Quadruple Alliance
This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
A form of Protestantism in which the believers were pacifists and would shake at the power of the word of the Lord
He was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor and humanist. He is regarded as an avant-garde writer of fantasy and satire
Raft of the Medusa (Géricault)
This Romantic work shows a crew shipwrecked
This was the new style of literature that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person. This style was a response to Romanticism's supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotion
Reform Bill of 1832
This bill gave representation to most people in England
Regulatory Legislation (Factory, Mines & 10 Hours Acts)
These acts all started to regulate and ameliorate the conditions of work in the factories and helped make the Industrial Revolution better and the living conditions in the urban areas better
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
Renaissance Popes
These were general title given to the popes that would convince the Renaissance artists to work for them in order to enhance the majesty of the churches
Revolutions of 1830
The French Revolution of 1830 occurred because Louis XVIII only granted a small percentage of people the right to vote and Charles X attack of Algeria and as a result, he censored the press and limited the voting rights of the wealthy
Revolutions of 1848
These revolutions occurred in 1)France, because of the depression and rising unemployment rates caused starvation in France in which they then overthrew the bourgeois monarchy 2)Austria, because the Hungarians rebelled against the Austrian Empire and were joined by the urban poor looking for employment, and 3) Prussia, because the artisans and factory workers joined with the middle-class liberals to rebel against the monarchy and eventually, Prussia became a constitutional monarchy
Ricardo (Iron Law of Wages)
This man stated that because of population growth, the wages would always sink to subsistence level
Robert Castlereagh
This British foreign minister was a supporter of Metternich
Robert Koch
This was the first man to isolate a bacterium and a virus and as a result h could create new vaccines for the disease
Robert Owen
This man both helped to lead the first national union in England and advocated the use of children in factories
The main leader of The Mountain and the man who ruled France after the First Revolution
Role of reason
The Enlightenment thinkers used reason to deduct conclusions about everyday life
This was the ruling class of Russia after the Cossack Rebellion
This was the response to the Enlightenment in which they believed that not everything could be measured, because of the passion of emotion
Roundheads and Cavaliers
These were the two sides of the English civil war. The Roundheads were the Puritan supporters of the Parliament and the Cavaliers were the supporters of Charles I
This man's work was extremely influential for the Romantic Movement
Rump Parliament
This was the Parliament after Oliver Cromwell dismissed the Cavaliers
This man was one of the early and influential socialist thinkers who proclaimed the tremendous possibilities of industrial development
Sale of Indulgences
This was the way that many people were granted salvation. This was a common method of the church to gain power and money
These were meeting places for philosophical discussion that were for the upper and middle class citizens who would talk about different doctrines
A Dominican friar that predicted the French invasion of Florence from the paganism and the moral vice of the city
Seditious Meetings Act
This act made it illegal to meet with a group of more than fifty people
Seven Years' War
This war was began as a follow-up of the War of Austrian Succession when Prussia invaded Austria
This man wrote several plays and poems and is regarded as one of the best writers of all time
The common crime of paying for holy offices for the position of power
Spanish Inquisition
This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
This was the massacre that occurred during the wedding of a Catholic and Huguenot that would resolve the conflict between the two conflicting parties
This was the name given to the person appointed by the States General to carry out ceremonial functions in a province in the Netherlands
Sturm und Drang
This was what the early German Romantics called themselves
Surplus Value
This is the value of the unpaid surplus labor performed by the worker for the capitalist for profit
Tennis Court Oath
This is the oath that the representatives of the third estate took when they swore that they would never disband until they had proper representation
Test Act of 1673
This was the bill passed that those who did not receive the Eucharist of the Anglican Church had little rights
The Commonwealth of England
This was the name that England took on after the civil war and the kingship was abolished
The Courtier
A treatise that sought to train, discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal, the gentleman
The Decameron
A work that portrays an acquisitive, sensual, and worldly society through descriptions of merchants, friars, and husbands
The Prince
A short political treatise about political power how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests
The Protectorate
This was the name of the military dictatorship that England took on during the reign of Oliver Cromwell
The Restoration
This was the re-establishment of the monarchy in England under Charles II. Both houses of Parliament were restored but the religious tensions still were present in England
The Stuarts
This was the Scottish royal family that ruled England after Elizabeth I
Theory of Class Struggle
This was the theory that two opposing classes have always battled against eachother to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
Theory of Evolution
This theory stated that animals could evolve from other animals in order to adapt to their environments. This theory was not widely accepted for it could possibly account for humans which would defeat the whole purpose of creationism
Thermidorian Reaction and The Directory
This was the reaction to the despotism after the Second Revolution which led to the establishment of the five-man executive that supported the French military which was not popular with the French people
Thirty Years' War
This was the international war between the Protestants and Catholics that eventually ended religious conflicts in Europe
Thomas Hobbes
This was the philosopher that believed that a strong central government was needed to avoid rebellion and civil war
Three Estates
The clergy made up a very small percentage but owned 10% of the land; the nobles made up another small percentage but also owned most of the land; and the rest of the people made up 97% of France and owned very little land
A Venetian man who created the style of mannerism in which artists sometimes distorted figures to express emotion and drama
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
This was the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession by giving the Prussians land, taking land away from Maria Theresa, but still allowing her to rule
Treaty of Paris (1763)
This treaty ended the Seven Years' War
Troppau Conference
This was the conference at which the Troppau Protocol was signed in which any country that underwent a revolution was no longer part of the European Alliance
Two Treatises on Government (John Locke)
This was the document that stated that if a ruler steps over its proper function to protect the natural rights of life, liberty, and property, than that ruler was a tyrant and must be overthrown
Ulrich Zwingli
This was a man who believed that Christian life rested on the Scriptures and a prominent leader in the Swiss Reformation. He went on to attack indulgences, the Mass, the institution of monasticism, and clerical celibacy
Urban living conditions
These were awful in the 19th Century as a result of poor sewage treatment, water conditions and bad foundations for buildings
Urban planning and public transit
This was the act of planning out a city and building it from the blueprints. This caused in increase in public transit that millions of people used a day instead of their own transportation or walking
A work that presents a revolutionary view of society and describes an ideal socialistic community on an island somewhere off the mainland of the New World. He created the name utopia as a good place which is no place
This was a German dynasty that often had conflicts with the Habsburgs that often involved other countries and papal troops
Varieties of Socialism
There were the early French socialists who believed in economic planning and argued that the government should rationally organize the economy and not depend on destructive competition to do the job. There was also dialectic socialism in which the followers believed that eventually, the proletariat will battle against the bourgeois to create one single class
This was the scientist who began to study anatomy in depth. He is referred as the father of anatomy
This was the man who first said that the Americas were completely separate from Asia, thus the continent was named after him
Victor Hugo
This was a Romantic writer who wrote prose and poetry
This was a playwright and a philosophe who said that the best that one could hope for in a government is a good monarch and he even often criticized the Catholic Church and government in his plays
Walter Scott
This Scottish Romantic poet used history to write his poems
Wanderer in the Clouds (Friedrich)
This work of art shows the insignificance of the human and the supremacy of nature
War of Austrian Succession
This war was over the inheritance of the throne by Maria Theresa, for the Salic law prevented a woman from solely ruling the state
War of Spanish Succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V
War of the Three Henrys
This was the last of the wars that occurred over the religious differences in France, between the Catholics (Henry III of France and Henry of Guise) and Protestants (Henry IV)
Wealth of Nations
This work criticized mercantilism by saying that it meant a combination of stifling government regulations and unfair privileges for state-approved monopolies and government favorites
Whigs and Tories
These were the two parties in the Parliament. The Whigs were mostly liberal and wanted change while the Tories wanted to keep the government as it was
William and Mary
These people were the king and queen of England after the Glorious Revolution that recognized the supremacy of the English Parliament
William Wordsworth
Leader of English Romanticism who published works in the countryside
Women's March on Versailles
This was the march by the women of Paris to the home of Marie Antoinette in order to demand action for the ridiculous raise in the price of bread
Working class leisure
The working class still enjoyed drinking, although it was discouraged, they started to enjoy sports and music halls, although blood sports declined
This was one o the original men to challenge the church. His writings became "scriptures" for other reformers to follow.
Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)
France's first elected president by universal male suffrage, and developed strong nationalism like his cousin
Giuseppe Mazzini
a radical idealistic patriot who wanted a centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and will of the people in Italy
Vincenzo Gioberti
A catholic priest who called for a federation of existing states under the presidency of a progressive pope in Italy
Victor Emmanuel
Sardinia's monarch who helped unite Italy
Pius IX
Pope who denounced unification and published the Syllabus of Errors
Camillo di Cavour
The political mastermind behind all of Sardinia's unification plans, he succeeded in creating a Northern Italian nation state
Giuseppe Garibaldi
A "super patriot" of Italy, he helped unify southern Italy with the help of his Red Shirts
Frederick William IV
A king and leader of Prussia who was unable to unify Germany "from above," he was replaced by William I
William I
The Leader of Prussia who wanted military expansion, and hired Bismarck to further his goals
Otto von Bismarck
German Political mastermind who spearheaded Prussian expansion
Alexander II
A Russian Tsar who implemented rapid social change and general modernization of Russia.
Alexander III
A determined reactionary Tsar who nevertheless sped forward with economic modernization
Sergei Witte
A tough finance minister who thought that Russia's industrial backwardness was threatening Russia's power and greatness
Nicholas II
Russia's last tsar, he witnessed the fall of Russia from great power, to the entering into WWI and total collapse
William II
This new German emperor opposed Bismarck, fired him, and ended up being less successful than Bismarck anyway
Adolphe Thiers
Leader of the National Assembly in France, he ordered the Paris Commune to be crushed. He also declared the Third Republic of France, because it "divided France the least"
Leon Gambetta
A successful politician in France, he was a moderate republican who helped stabilize government
Alfred Dreyfus
A Jewish military captain in the French Army, he was falsely accused of treason, and his affair split France apart
Benjamin Disraeli
A British politician who extended the vote to the rich middle class in order to broaden the political base of the conservative party
David Lloyd George
Member of the Liberal party in Great Britain who helped raise taxes on the rich, and reform in general
William Gladstone
A Liberal British Prime Minister who gave concessions to various parties and ultimately introduced bills for Irish self-governance
Karl Lueger
The fiery mayor of Vienna who preached anti-Semitism and appealed to lower middle class
Theodor Herzl
German Jewish Politician who advocated the policy of Zionism and the creation of a nation state for all Jewish people.
Edward Bernstein
A revisionist social who advocated the gradual gain of socialism and looked towards Darwin's doctrines as a measure for a change in socialism's tactics
Jean Jaures
French revisionist socialist who repudiated revisionist doctrines to achieve a unified socialist state
An occurrence in Russia that lead to the increase of its stature in world power standings and revitalized the economy and industry
Louis Napoleon's rise & ideas on gov't
He thought that the Government should be powerful and that there should be strong nationalism, but mainly guided by the people's interests
Reasons for and against Italian unity
People wanted Italian unity because it would unify Italy, and they wanted a different government. People did not want unification because it went against the church, there were very different areas in the north and the south, and because they wanted to just keep things the same
Syllabus of Errors
A document by the pope in which he denounced rationalism, socialism, religious liberty, and separation of the church and state.
Cavour's program
Cavour's plan was to first modernize the econ, and model it off of Britain, then modernize the military, with lots of railroads to move the troops around to country
Austro-Sardinian War
Austria invades Italy and the French come in to help the Italians. The Italians and the French are very successful and gain Lombardy.
1859 Garibaldi's invasion
An energized movement of radicals from Sicily to the mainland and gaining land for unification
Reasons for and against German unity
Upper class and Conservatives did not want unification because they would have less power, but the rest of the people wanted it because of nationalism and German identity
A German customs union founded to increase trade and stimulate revenues of its members
Bismarck's plans and maneuvers
He wanted to unify Germany, but played it safe, with many alliances and pacts, and ends up being amazing
"Blood and Iron"
Bismarck's idea of always preparing and waging war, and those things can only be done with war
Schleswig-Holstein crisis
A desire for success abroad lead to this. It was a short war against Denmark to gain these providences
Austro-Prussian War - Causes & Outcomes
The Germans needed a way to make the Austrians on their side, and they had the superior army. The Germans won, and were able to make sure that Austria stayed out of German affairs
North German Confederation Constitution
This stated that local government had some power, but that ultimate power rested in the hands of Bismarck and William
Franco-Prussian War - Causes & Outcomes
The reason behind the war was because a war would bring the Southern German states into the Prussian state, and the French wanted to teach Germany a lesson. It ended up that the Germans kicked butt, and the French were humiliated, and the German plan worked completely
Ems Telegram
A telegram which the French gave to the Germans in anger over the Succession of the Throne in Spain, but the Germans altered it to look like the French were rude and evil. The French declared war.
Crimean War - impact in Britain & Russia
This war showed that the Russian were way behind the rest of the world, and needed reform.
Russian Modernization
The most of these were economical and not political, and even then were mostly only halfway efforts
Witte's reforms
He "used the west to catch up to the west" in Russia, by having foreigners build factories and making new transport lines.
A local coulcil of politicians to deal with local problems in Russia
Trans-Siberian Railroad
A railroad that went across Siberia
Russo-Japanese War - impact in Russia
This war showed that Russia was still not strong, and it caused revolution back at home.
"Bloody Sunday" (1905) - Causes, actions, effects
The cause was people wanted to present a petition to the Tsar, the action was people getting shot, the effect was people disliking the Tsar and turning on him
October Manifesto
This granted full civil rights to people and opened up the Duma
This was a legislative parliament in Russia with real political power
Decline of Ottoman Empire
They fell behind in industrialization, in education, and in general compared to the west
This was a short ottoman parliament designed to model the western model of an empire
Young Turks
Young rebellious people in the Ottoman Empire who forced the Sultan to reform
Structure of German government
They had a strong top government and they had a Reichstag, or the lower house of parliament
Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church
German social legislation
Bismarck placed high tariffs on imported goods, and tried to stop socialism with government measures that banned the socialist party
Paris Commune
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
French educational reforms
The Dreyfus affair lead to the separation of church and state, and lead to more people in government backed schools that were no longer catholic schools but republican schools.
Dreyfus Affair
Incident in France where a Jewish captain was tried for treason because they military was anti-Semitic, and it divided the country
Extension of suffrage in Britain
suffrage was extended to more middle class men in Britain so that they conservatives would get a stronger base
Liberal v. Conservative Parties in Britain
The conservative party in Britain was put down when the king threatened to make more liberal seats to pass bills that the conservatives were vetoing
People's Budget
A plan in British parliament that increased spending on social services
Irish Home Rule
A desire of some people in Ireland to not be ruled by England
Dual Monarchy
The joining of Austria and Hungary under two different crowns
Magyar policies
The Magyar pushed through bills that changed voting laws to help the elite and to force through the teaching of Hungarian in schools. They created the nationalism that would tear them apart
A mindset that people of Jewish heritage were inferior to other races
A movement to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine
Socialists and Nationalism
The socialist opposed nationalism and thought that the German worker had more in common with the French worker than the German boss
Second International
A group of socialist national parties that met and discussed Marx, and planned action
The socialist idea that we should embrace socialism in a gradual advance, with no bloody war
Muhammad Ali
Egyptian army general who stepped into power after the French left. He reformed the army, the land, and the communication of Egypt
Ismail Ali
Khedive of Egypt, he was a westernizing autocrat and grandson of the first leader
Leopold II
Belgian king who ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain.
Matthew Perry
This American naval officer was the driving factor in Japan's opening by using gunboat diplomacy
Dowager Empress Tzu Hsi
Chinese leader who used conservative forces to maintain her power
John A. Hobson
This man wrote Imperialism, a critique of imperalism
Cecil Rhodes
British military commander who believed in expansion and founded the De Beers Mining Company
Joseph Conrad
This man wrote Heart of Darkness, where he criticized the Europeans in their civilizing
Henry Labouchière
A member of British Parliament who mocked Rudyard Kipling's poem
Robert Clive
This man was a British soldier who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Southern India and Bengal. He is credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown.
Warren Hastings
This man was the first governor of British Bengal
Ranjit Singh
This man was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire in India
Rudyard Kipling
British writer who wrote of "the white man's burden" and justified imperialism
Sun Yatsen
This man was a radical Chinese reformer who sought to overthrow the government
Income inequality / Standard of Living
There was an large inequality of income and standard of living between Europe and the non-industrialized world because industrialization itself opened the gap
World Markets / European foreign investment
Europe mainly invested most of its money back into Europe, and then into the US
Isolation & "Opening" of China and Japan
Isolation to protect against the corruptive west, and a forced opening for reasons of trace
British Opium Trade / Opium Wars
The British had a war with the Chinese to make sure they could sell their opium to china
Treaty of Nanking
A treaty with Britain and China that gave Hong Kong to Britain and opened 4 cities for trade
1842 Western penetration of Egypt
This was when the French left, and the British moved in and invaded and captured Egypt
This was the equivalent of a king in Egypt
Suez Canal
An important canal to the British in Egypt
Egyptian Nationalist Party
A political party in Egypt that was formed under Ahmed Arabi
Migration: Who went where, and why? (demographics)
1/3 of European migrants came from British Isles; less that ½ went to the US; most often a small peasant landowner/village craftsman; left because they were threatened by industrialization; many returned to their homelands
Swallows / Repatriation
These were people who migrated to new lands, but then came back to either farm, or to stay
Great White Walls
This was a policy of discriminatory laws designed to keep Asians out of countries
Scramble for Africa
This was an event where Europe tried to claim Africa as quickly as it could
Boers / Afrikaners
These were Dutch settlers in south Africa
Congo exploitation
This event was where king Leopold of Belgium exploited Congo for his personal gain
Berlin Conference of 1884-5
This event happened to set laws for colonization and claiming land in Africa
"Effective Occupation"
This was the idea of occupying land so that a country could claim it
Fashoda Crisis of 1898
This event occurred when both Britain and France wanted the town of Fashoda; in the end, the British gained control of the town, because the French gave up
A battle between Muslim warriors and British machine gunners, a bloody massacre
"New Imperialism"
The new idea that revitalized the period of expansion and gathering of colonies
Justifications for Imperialism
People justified imperialism by the concept of "white man's burden," which stated that European should govern other because it was right and better for the people
Social Darwinism
The twisted social idea that used the theory of evolution and applied to people
"The White Man's Burden"
The justification of imperialism, this was created in Kipling's work
Responses to Imperialism: Traditionalist v. Modernist
Some people thought that we should accept and learn from the people who were taking over our land, these being the modernists; and other thought that we should completely try to get rid of them, these people being the traditionalists
Founding of the British empire in India
Britain gained this territory by slowly asserting influence and putting people in charge
Great Rebellion (Indian Mutiny)
This was a insurrection of Muslim and Hindi army officers that spread through northern India before it was crushed. It was because of people trying to send out the white army officers
Meiji Restoration of 1867
This was a replacement of the Japanese government with the emperor, done so by samurai
Japanese "opening" of Korea
The Japanese had a war with China and ended up gaining Korea, which they opened to trade; Japan became an imperialist power
Sino-Japanese War
A war between China and Japan for influence, power, and territory
Russo-Japanese War
A war between Russia and Japan for Port Arthur, and for more influence in CHina
Qing Dynasty
The two hundred year old Chinese dynast that was the last emperors of China
Boxer Rebellion
A rebellion of traditionalist Chinese people who wanted to throw the foreigners out
China's Hundred Days of Reform
A period of reform for china in the attempt to meet the foreign challenge
Open Door Policy
A policy in which US made formal annexation of China
Lawrence of Arabia
British military officer who incited the Arabs in Arabia to revolt against their Turkish lords
Georges Clemenceau
An effective and almost dictator-like leader of France, who would not take defeat as an answer
Nicholas II
Last Tsar of Russia, he involved the Russians in WWI
Theobald von Bethman-Hollweg
German chancellor who hoped for WWI to happen, but without Britain
Wilhelm II Mustafa Kemal
the so called "father of the Turks," he founded what is now known as Turkey and defended against British attack
Alfred von Schlieffen
German who concocted the plan of "France for breakfast, Russia for dinner"
Franz Joseph
The old leader of Austria in the years before WWI
Gravrilo Princip
A Serbian nationalist in the Black hand who killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Walther Rathenau
was a German industrialist, politician, writer, and statesman who served as Foreign Minister of Germany during the Weimar Republic.
Paul von Hindenburg
This German, along with his partner Ludendorff, essentially ran Germany during the end of the war
Erich Ludendorff
This German, along with his partner Hindenburg, essentially ran Germany during the end of the war
Erich von Falkenhayn
He was chief of the general staff during WWI for the Germans
Henri Pétain
French military leader who assumed control of France and lead it out of the war successfully
Douglas Haig
was a British soldier and senior commander (field marshal) during World War I. He commanded the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) from 1915 to the end of the War. Most notably he was commander during the Battle of the Somme, the 3rd Battle of Ypres and the series of victories leading to the German surrender in 1918.
Robert Nievelle
He took command of one of the main French armies engaged in the Battle of Verdun, leading it during its successful counter-strokes against the Germans, but was accused of wasting French lives during some of his attacks. He became Commander-in-Chief of the French armies on the Western Front in December 1916, and was criticised in that capacity for not exploiting good opportunities to attack the Germans. He was responsible for the Nivelle Offensive, which faced a very large degree of opposition during its planning stage. When the offensive failed to achieve a breakthrough on the Western Front, Nivelle was replaced as Commander-in-Chief in May 1917.
Woodrow Wilson
American president at the time of WWI who came up with 14 points
Rosa Luxembourg
German socialist revolutionary who was assassinated after the war
Serbian nationalist movement
This was a movement to create a Serbian state and break from Austria Hungary
First, Second, Third Balkan War
All of these were wars for nationalistic purposes, the third creating WWI
A movement to create a nation state of Slavic people
Alliances 1873-1914 & German isolation
Germany became more and more isolated because it was aggressive and France had pursued many alliances against Germany, leaving Germany only with Austria
Moroccan Crisis & Algeciras Conference 1906
This event showed that Germany was war hungry and turned the British onto the side of the French
Development of Anglo-German rivalry & Naval arms race
This rivalry developed because of the increasing naval race, and because Germany was becoming increasingly militaristic
Triple Entente & Triple Alliance
The triple Entente was an alliance between France, Britain and Russia, the Triple alliance was an alliance between Germany, Austria and Russia
The French idea of revenge for what Germany did in the Franco-Prussian war
the Schlieffen Plan
The plan that Germany would attack France quickly and then move towards Russia
Why war was seen as a good thing in 1914
War was seen as a good thing because it would cover up all of the problems that every country involved had going on at home
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand -- the Black Hand
the serbs assassinated the archduke to make a statement, and the Austrians got really pissed, because he was the next in line for the throne and the guy on the throne then was old
Austrian "anti-nationalism"
The Austrians tried to stop the nationalism of different people in their country from tearing them apart, but it did not work
July Diplomacy - the Blank Check
This was given to Austria form Germany that guaranteed full military backing in any war
Why war preparations were "unstoppable"
War preparations were unstoppable because once you started to prepare, you knew that your enemies were doing the same, and you could not stop, because if you did, your enemies could attack you
Progress of the War
WWI progressed so the Germans were winning at first, and then the Americans came and kicked butt. It also was so pointless and full of death
Importance of Germany's campaign through Belgium
When Germany moved through Belgium, it caused Britain to go on the side of the war with France.
Why the Western Front became stalemated
The western front became stalemated because it was full of trench warfare and needless death
Innovations in weaponry zeppelins, airplanes, gas, machine guns, tanks
these things were new ideas that really did not work very well
Lusitania and Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
This ship was sunk with Americans on it, and this action by the Germans was what ultimately caused the Americans to enter the war
"total war" & measures to prosecute it
This was the effort to completely involve every person and aspect of the economy into the war
Problems of trench life
the trench was dirty, wet, smelly, and full of death, and you waited to die at any moment
Battles of the Marne
This battle was a French/British victory, because they stopped the German offensive
Battle of Tannenberg
This battle was a German victory against the Russian, the Russians were crushed
Battle of Verdun
one of the costliest battles in WWI, was mainly useless and just people died
Battle of the Somme
Failed allied offensive that resulted in a lot of loss of life
A failed British offensive in Ottoman empire
a COMPLETELY worthless battle that resulted in millions dead
Nievelle's Offensive
French offensive that resulted in an almost mutiny by the French military
German 1918 Offensive
A last ditch attempt to beat the allies after the Germans defeated the Russians
Strains of the war on the Great Powers
The strains lead to millions of people dead, and many revolutions and restructuring
Costs of the war -- monetary & human
the war lost 15 million lives and cost 196 billion in today's money
The "Big Four"
The big 4 were US, Britain, France and Italy
Fourteen Points
These were part of Wilson's plan to end conflict
Germany had to pay billions of dollars in war reperations
national self-determination
The idea that people should determine who and what they want leading them
Treaty of Versailles terms
These terms said that Germany had to pay money, that Germany had to give up land, and that Germany had to keep its army size down
Niccolo Machiavelli
"Florentine political theorist believed that the state was an artifice of human creation to be conquered, shaped and administered by princes according to the principles in his novel The Prince."
Byzantine Empire
"Founded by Constantine I. Created out of the Eastern Roman Empire and had its capital sacked by the Ottoman Turks in 1453. After its fall, wester merchants were forced to look for sea routes to India, because the fall of Constantinople closed the land route."
Duchy of Milan
"Had been under dynastic rule since the fourteenth century, the most powerful Italian principality, a military state, uninterested in the support of the arts. Turned to a republic in 1447, turned back into a duchy and then came under Spanish rule."
"The dynasty that ruled Milan until 1447, when the powerful group of lords failed in an attempt to unify northern and central Italy, after the last duke of Visconti died without an heir, the city was declared a republic."
Treaty of Lodi
1454; settled decades of warfare between the city states, established a balance of power between the major Italian city states and maintained relative stability in the peninsula for a half a century, the system collapsed in 1494 with the French invasion.
War of the Roses
"England's intermittent civil war, fueled by factions among nobles and regional discontnent and abroad by Franco-Burgundian intervention, did relatively little damage to England, did not affect English economic growth."
House of Tudor
"Ultimate winners of the War of the Roses, lead by Henry Tudor, who proclaimed himself Henry VII after the victory."
Ferdinand and Isabella
These rulers married in 1469, taking the first step towards a unified Spain. The unity of Aragon and Castile crushed the last of the Iberian Muslim states, Granada, yeilded into a Christian-dominated Spain.
"Jewish converts to Christianity in Spain, often suspected of practicing their ancestral religion while pretending to support their new faith... this lead to investigations of those suspected of religious lapses."
Auto da fe
"A public confession which was one of the punishments if found guilty of practicing one's old religion and not Christianity, other punishments were anything from monetary fines to burning at the stake."
Louis XI of France
Captured Burgundy after the death of Charles the Bold, also inherited the southern region of France after the Anjou dynasty died out, promoted industry and commerce, kept western Europe's first standing army, removed meetings with the Estates-General.
Pragmatic Sanction
"1438, Charles asserted an authority of a general church council over the pope."
French king controlled the ecclesiastical revenues and the appointment of French bishops.
The Ottoman Empire
"Led by Sultan Mehmed II, a serious threat to Christian Europe, declared a holy war and laid siege to Constantinople and won, earning Mehmed II the name of the ""Conqueror""."
"Began to assert their independence with the collapse of the Mongol power. Ivan III the first prince to declare himself Tsar, was very successful: crushed the city-state of Novgorod, pushed Mongols back, claimed absolute power, defended the Russian Orthodox Church."
"Ivan III declared himself the ____ of Muscovy, the absolute ruler of Muscovy."
Marco Polo
1324, A Venetian trader and explorer, one of the first westerners to travel the Silk Road in China, visited the Great Khan of Mongol, and met Kublai Khan.
Vasco da Gama
"Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful during the age of discovery and was the first person to sail from Europe to India, reached Calicut."
"Vasco da Gama reached _______, the center of the Indian spice trade."
Ferdinand Magellan
1512","A Portuguese sailor in Spanish service, lead the first expedition to circumnavigate the globe."
Pedro Alvares
Accidentaly discovered Brazil in 1500 on a voyage to India.
Christopher Columbus
1492","Funded by Isabella and Ferdinand, he set sail across the Atlantic in 1492 with only three ships and ninety men, found modern day Bahamas and mistook the islands for part of the East Indies, encountered a group of Indians, the Arawaks."
Hernan Cortes
"One of the most prominent Spanish explorers, lead an expedition to New Spain(Mexico) in search of gold, captured the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan in 1519."
"A large urban capital in New Spain, overtaken by Cortes in 1519 in his search for gold"
Francisco Pizarro
"Another prominint Spanish explorer, conquered the Andean highlands, exploiting a civil war between rival Incan kings."
Subdued by the Spanish on the Yucatan peninsula.
Treaty of Tordesillas
"1494, settled disputes between Spanish and Portuguese by dividing the Atlantic between the two countries, this was the agreement that allowed Portugal to claim Brazil."
Jacques Cartier
"1534, led three voyages that explored the t. Lawrence River as far as Montreal, early attempts to settle Canada failed because of the harsh winter and Indian hostility."
"Capital of the Byzantine Empire, named after Constantine I. Sacked by the Turks in 1453."
Matteo de Pasti
Court painter and architect of the Rimini city-state in modern day Italy. Mehmed II requested that he be sent to the newly conquered city of Constantinople. He was intercepted and turned around by the Venetians in Crete and sent back to Rimini.
"Means rebirth in French. Used to label the period of time during the 15th century where a renewed interest in classical art and philosophy coupled with Hhumanist philosophy brought about a cultural ""rebirth"". Centered in Italy."
Philosophy stating that man is the measure of all things and that man can do whatever he puts his mind to. Raised the importance of the liberal arts in Europe.
"City State in what is now modern day Italy. Home to Cosimo de Medici and the Platonic Academy. Played a major roll in the renaissance, and the birth and spread of Humanism."
Arno River
A river in Italy that flows through Florence.
Cosimo de Medici
Rich and relatively powerful Florentine Banker who sponsored the Platonic Academy and other early renaissance establishments.
Platonic Academy
A discussion group sponsored by Cosimo de Medici and headed by Marsilo Ficino. It discussed the philosophies and ideals of Plato and his followers.
Marsilo Ficino
Headed the Platonic Academy in Florence. Cosimo de Medici was his patron.
"returning to the sources"
Renaissance term that referred to the renaissance's fixation with the past and looking back at it. This was a slogan used to justify their study of past philosophy to their Christian faith.
Italian City States
"Main ones: Venice, Florence, Milan, the Papal States, Naples. Can be divided into two categories: republics (preserved tradition of the medieval commune), such as Venice and Florence, and principalities (ruled by dynasty), such as Milan and Naples."
Invention of Paper in China
Paper was invented by the Chinese (Some believe as early as the 2nd c. B.C.E.) and brought to Europe by Arab traders.
Printing Press
Created by Johannes Gutenburg of Germany in the 1440's. This invention allowed for the quick spread of ideas. Crucial to the spreading of ideas throughout many stages of the development of western society.
Johannes Gutenburg
German Goldsmith and inventor of the Printing Press. His most famous books are the Gutenburg bibles. It is a two volume set written in Latin and only 185 copies were produced.
A workshop in which documents were copied by hand for sale to upper and middle class.
The Bible
The Christian Holy Book. Actually a collection of many books divided into an old testament (Before Jesus) and a new testament (From the birth of Jesus and on.)
Rich upper or middle class people who would give money and support to artists and intellectuals.
Leonardo Da Vinci
"Widely considered ""the renaissance man"". He was a master of many trades and is widely known as the painter of the Mona Lisa. He was also an accomplished inventor and scientist."
Master Florentine sculptor. Worked under Medici patronage and produced a famous sculpture of the biblical king David before Michelangelo.
Famous Renaissance artist who was a favorite of Pope Julius II. Some of his most famous work included the Stature of David and the Roof of the Sistine Chapel.
Cesare Borgia
"Served as the model for a ruthless ruler in Machiavelli's ""The Prince"". Son of Pope Alexander VI, a pope who had many mistresses and questionable moral fiber."
Government Brothels
"Brothels set up by the government in Florence. These brothels were created to ""eliminate a worse evil by a lesser one."" By worse evil they are reffering to homosexuality and prostitution."
Ospedale degli Innocenti
"1445, Florentine government openend this shelter to deal with the large amounts of abandoned children."
Dowry Fund
"1425, public fund established to raise state revenues and a major investment instrument for the upper classes. 1433, the fund paid annual interest of between 15 and 21%, fathers could hope to raise dowries to marry their daughters to more prominent men."
Abandoned Children
Many came from poor families who were unable to feed these children and women who had given birth out of wedlock.
Sandro Botticelli
"Italian painter of ""Spring"" and ""The Birth of Venus."""
Jan Van Eck
Widely considered the greatest of the painters from the north countries. Attributed with the creation of oil painting.
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
"Wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man which has been called the ""Manifesto of the Renaissance."""
Visual Perspective
The modern form of this was first mastered by Filippo Brunneleschi in the early 1440's. Important part of renaissance advancments to art.
Lorenzo Ghiberti
"Headed the project to create a set of bronze doors for the baptistry of the cathedral in Florence. His ""Gates of Paridise"" showed old testament scenes created with sense of visual perspective that was considered revolutionary for the time."
"Gates of Paradise"
Set of inner doors at the Baptistry of the Cathedral I Florence. Bared "Old Testament" scenes sculpted with regards to visual perspective.
Filippo Brunelleschi
Famous Italian architect who designed the dome for the cathedral in Florence.
Leon Battista Alberti
"Famous Italian Writer, poet, linguist, architect, and philosopher. Argued for large-scale urban planning. Designed Rucellai Palace in Florence."
Popo Grosso
"Used by Florentines to describe 30% of the urban population, including wealthier merchants, the leading artisans, notaries, doctors, and other professionals."
Popo Minuto
"A term used by Florentines to describe 60% of all households, the workers, small merchants, and artisans."
German city that became the international meeting place for buying and selling books.
Charles V
King of Spain from 1520-1558.
95 Thesis
"Challenged the teachings of the Church on the nature of penance, the autority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. They sparked a theological debate that would result in the Reformation."
Diet of Worms
A general assembly of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms. It is most memorable for addressing Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation.
Huldrych Zwingli of Zurich
The leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland. His movement persecuted Anabaptists. It affected Zurich in civil life as well as matters of state. It quickly spread through other parts of Switzerland.
Colloquy of Marburg (1529)
Philip I wanted to unite the protestant followers of Luther and those of Zwingli in a way which was politically convenient for him by trying to find a median between the two groups.
John Calvin
A French protestant who founded Calvinism. He rejected papal authority and is famous for his teachings and writings. Predestination.
Affair of the Placards (1534)
"An incident involving anti-Catholic posters which appeared in public places in Paris, France during the night of October 17, 1534. It marks the end of the conciliatory policies of Francis I, who had formerly attempted to protect the Protestants."
Thomas Muntzer
"An early Reformation-era German pastor who was a rebel leader during the Peasants' War. Radical Reformation, Protestant reformers."
German Peasant's War
A massive rural uprising that threatened the entire social order in Germany from 1520 to 1525.
Menno Simmons
Was an Anabaptist religious leader from Friesland (today a province of The Netherlands). His followers became known as Mennonites. Protestant reformers.
New Testament into German (1522)
Martin Luther did this during his time in hiding believing the common people to be allowed to read the bible for themselves.
Jacques Lefevere d'Etaples
Translated the bible into French.
William Tyndale
Inspired by Luther he translated the bible into English.
A higher school for boys that was intended to prepare students for university study.
The Jesuits
This was the most important religious order of Catholic Europe in the 16th century. They helped establish an excellent system of secondary education through their colleges.
Henry VIII
"Famous for having been married six times, and ultimately breaking with Rome. He wielded perhaps the most untrammeled power of any English monarch, and brought about the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and the union of England and Wales."
Defender of the Faith
This title was awarded to King Henry VIII after writing the book "Defense of the Seven Sacraments" the assistance of Thomas More.
Act of Supremacy (1529)
An act of the Parliament of England under King Henry VIII of England declaring that he was 'the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England.
Juan Luis Vives
Famous Spanish scholar and humanist.
Catherine of Aragon
Queen consort of England as Henry VIII of England's first wife. Henry tried to have their eighteen year marriage annulled in part because all their male heirs apparently died in childhood.
Thomas Cranmer
One of King Henry VIII's loyal servants who was also an archbishop of Canterbury.
Katharina von Bora
"German Catholic nun who was an early convert to Protestantism. She later became the wife of Martin Luther, the leader of the Protestant Reformation, who often fondly called her ""my Lord Katie."""
Orlando de Lassus
"A Franco-Flemish composer oflate Renaissance music. Today considered to be the chief representative of the mature polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish School, and he was the most famous and influential musician in Europe at the end of the 16th century."
Pieruigi da Palestrina
"He is remembered for his sacred music, especially for his polyphonies that accompanied the Mass, in which he reaffirmed Catholic tradition by using themes from Gregorian chants of medieval times."
Baldassare Castiglione
A diplomat and was a very prominent Renaissance author.
AVenetian painter who captured Charles V's life on canvas four times. He is known best for the portrait known as Gloria.
"Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. Created famous works such as the David and the Sistine Chapel"
This Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. Based their claim to be ahead of Edward III of England and Jeanne de Navarre on a reintroduction of the Salic law.
One of the ruling families of France which was at war with the Valois family.
"Suleiman I ""the Magnificent"""
The Turkish sultan who lead the siege of Vienna.
Seige of Vienna
"Was the first attempt of the Ottoman Empire, led by Sultan Suleiman I, to capture the city of Vienna."
Jakob Fugger
The personal banker for Charles V's grandfather Maximilian I.
"The name of the French Protestants, more specifically French Calvinistic Protestants"
Schmalkaldic League
League of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire who vowed to defend each other's territories in if Charles V were to attack.
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
"A treaty signed between Charles V, and the Schmalkaldic. It officially put a stop to the Schmalkaldic wars. It allowed the princes to choose to be either Lutheran or Catholic."
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
"An agreement of Elizabeth I, Henry II, and Philip II of Spain. It was to decide territorial boarders. Henry's daughter Elisabeth, it was also determined, was to marry Philip II."
Council of Trent (1545-1563)
"Convened three times in the city of Trent due to the rise of the reformation movement, It was to interpret the catholic church's doctrines regarding salvation, the sacraments, and the biblical canon and creating a Mass that was to be used around the world."
Ignatius of Loyola
"The principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. Members of the order are called Jesuits."
Francis Xavier
A pioneering Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order).
This was the holy bible authorized by the catholic church. It was written in Latin so that the common people were unable to read it. As people like Erasmus pointed out it contained many wrong translations.
Basic territorial unit of the catholic church.
Someone who does not believe in god. (Muslim saying)
Protestant Reformation
Started by Martin Luther it was a sweeping movement to uproot church abuses and restore early Christian teachings.
Evangelical Movement
This is what Luther and his followers referred to their movement which emphasized its adherence to the Gospels.
This was what the followers of Martin Luther were called until 1529 when German princes and city delegates lodged a formal protest against imperial authorities who had declared Luther's cause criminal.
What the followers of Martin Luther called themselves after the prince of Germany had decided Luther's actions to be criminal.
Christian Humanists
These people were outraged by the abuse of power of the church and dreamed of ideal societies based on peace and morality. They also sought to realize the ethical ideals of the classical world.
This was a remission of sin by performing certain religious tasks such as "going on pilgrimage, attending mass, doing holly works, etc." However it was more likely that this was merely organized by the church in order to make a greater profit.
Martin Luther
Was a German friar who, tormented by his own religion, became the spokesperson for his generation and his reform movement sparked explosive protests.
A theory by John Calvin which stated that God had ordained every man, woman, and child to salvation or damnation, even before the creation of the world. Therefore, no matter what one did in life it would not affect God's plan.
These people believed that only adults could believe and accept baptism and therefore the baptism of infants was invalid. They considered themselves to be true Christians unblemished by sin and did not support violence but preferred peace and salvation.
Desiderius Erasmus
A Dutch scholar who was a representative of the Christian humanists. He dominated the humanist world of early sixteenth century Europe. He earned a reputation of being very dedicated to education reform.
Thomas Moore
He was an English lawyer who also served loyally as a royal ambassador for king Henry the VIII. He became lord chancellor. However, tiring of court life and Henry's control over the clergy he resigned. Among his more famous works is the book Utopia.
Written by Thomas More describes it describes an imaginary land which, was intended as a critique of his own society. This society was heaven compared to life in England as it was based on a system of equality.
German Peasant's War
This was a massive rural uprising that threatened the entire social order of Germany. This eventually split the reform movement in the end the princes managed to defeat the peasants.
Ignatius of Loyola
The founder of the Jesuits.
Mexican Ecclesiastical Provincial Council
This council declared in Mexico that holy orders were not to be conferred on Indians, Mestizos, and Mulattoes, Jews and people who had been sentenced by the Spanish Inquisitions.
Henry II
France, Punished Huguenots, Came to power in 1614, Previously was Grand Admiral. He was killed in a joust, accidentally.
Catherine de Medici
After Henry II's death she came into power along with her son and began a civil war against the Bourbon and Guise families.
Guise Family
The family who planned to stop Bourbon ambitions and was followed by militant Catholics.
Bourbon Family
Next in line to inherit the crown from the Valois family and had the support of the Protestants.
Valois (Family)
The ruling family of France.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Catherine ordered the killing of the Huguenot's leaders, and this lead to a massacre in which over three thousand Huguenots were murdered in Paris.
French Protestants or Calvinists.
Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)
Protestant Bourbon who Came into power in France after the death of Henry III. Be said "Paris is worth a mass" and tried to blend the two religious ideals.
Edict of Nantes
Granted Huguenots religious toleration and made them an officially protected minority.
Battle of Lepanto
Philip II defeated the Turks at this battle, off the coast of Greece, and gained control of the western Mediterranean.
The Revolt of the Netherlands
The Calvinists in Netherlands struck out against the Catholics and destroyed churches. Prince William of Orange led the revolt and encouraged the attacking of Spain by Netherlands.
The Spanish Fury
In response to the Netherlands uprising, Philip II sent his troops to Antwerp where they slaughtered seven thousand people.
Dutch Republic
The princes of Orange ruled this and made it the main European money market for the next two centuries.
Elizabeth I
Came into power after the death of Mary Tudor and became queen of England. She brought Protestantism back to England even after Philips request to maintain the Catholic faith.
Mary Queen of Scots
Next in line after Elizabeth, she waited under house arrest creating plots against Elizabeth. Elizabeth finally ordered her beheading her she discovered Mary was working with Philip II.
Phillip II
Sent in the Spanish Armada with the praise of Pope Sixtus V to eradicate the heretical Queen Elizabeth.
Spanish Armada
Philip;s great fleet of 130 ships; was defeated and forced to return home after losing half of its ships. This was a great victory for Protestants around Europe.
James I
Came into power as the King of England and Scotland after Elizabeth.
Ivan the Terrible
Ruthlessly fought to make Muscovy the centre of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Romanov Dynasty
Established peace and state building after the death of Ivan.
King Gustavus Adolphus
King of Sweden who fought for the Protestant cause and had the strongest military presence in Northern Europe.
Thirty Year's War
A war which began as civil wars over religion and spread to the West of Europe. It started as a war over religion and became political, as well as ruining many countries.
After Ferdinand II was elected he tried to curtail the Protestant's religious freedom and had two Catholic deputies dissolve a Protestant meeting in Prague. The protestants replied by throwing the two deputies out of a 50 foot high window.
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Brought peace to the Thirty Years War and served as a model for resolving conflict among the warring European countries.
Poor Laws of 1597
Throughout the 14th to 16th centuries the wealth of Britain was underwritten by the wool trade and in the quest for this wealth, large tracts of land were turned over to sheep farming. This eventually led to an underclass of dispossessed poor.
Code of Laws (1649)
This consolidated Russia's slaves and free peasants into a new serf class and pronounced that travel between towns was made forbidden without an internal passport. Russia's nobles agreed to serve in the army, but were granted exclusive privilege.
An area of present day Russia. Having the strongest economy of the Russian states.
Europeans who immigrated to the Americas. This was mainly applied to the settlers of Plymouth rock, Massachusetts.
African Slaves to Virginia (1619)
The first slaves were brought to Charles County (in place of indentured servants) to work on the plantations (mostly tobacco) in the new colonies. This caused the widespread use of slaves in the American colonies, ending officially in 1865.
Any person seeking "purity" of worship and doctrine, especially the parties that rejected the reform of the Church of Endgland. Many of these people settled in the American colonies.
William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
Famous English playwright, writer, actor whose plays reflected on the contemporary concerns on the nature of power by setting them in faraway times and places.
El Greco
He was a prominent painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. He applied mannerism and the-style-of' the Venetian Renaissance.
Preeminent in Catholic countries
Peter Paul Rueben's
Was the most popular and prolific Flemish and European painter of the 17th century. He was the proponent of an exuberant Baroque style which emphasized movement, color and sensuality.
Jean Bodin
(1530-1596) was a French jurist and political philosopher, member of the Parlement (not to be confused with the English Parliament) of Paris and professor of Law in Toulouse. He is considered by many to be the father of political science.
This is a form of theatre in which the drama is conveyed wholly or predominantly through music and singing. Claudio Monteverdi was the first person to apply this art form, which spread from Italy.
Michel de Montaigne
(February 28, 1533 - September 13, 1592) was one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance. He is known for popularizing the essay. He became famous for his effortless ability to merge serious intellectual speculation with the casual.
Hugo Grotius
Argued for a natural law of government that stood beyond secular or divine authority.
Scientific Revolution
The event which most historians of science call this can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.
Nicolaus Copernicus
Astronomer who formulated the theory of heliocentrism.
The belief that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System.
Tycho Brahe
Astrologer and alchemist. Along with his assistant Johannes Kepler, he designed the laws for planetary motion.
Johannes Kepler
(December 27, 1571 - November 15, 1630), a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution, was a German Lutheran mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. He is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova.
Galileo Galilei
He was an Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher. He improved the telescope, made many astrological observations. He discovered that the Earth revolves around the Sun.
Sir Francis Bacon
He was an English philosopher, statesman and essayist but is best known for leading the scientific revolution with his new observation and experimentation' theory which is the way science has been conducted ever since. He was knighted in 1603.
Rene Descartes
(March 31, 1596 - February 11, 1650) a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. Dubbed the "Founder of Modem Philosophy"
The alleged use of supernatural powers. People who acted strangely or appeared to have supernatural powers were accused of being witches. This was almost exclusively in relation to women. Many secularists, scientists, and astronomers were accused of this.
a tenet or belief.
was a term referring to a kind of 'New Christian' in Spain and Portugal. They were Muslims who were exiled to North Africa in 1610
Political leaders who mostly just wanted peace.
Raison d'etat
A country's goals and ambitions whether economic, military, or cultural. The notion is an important one in international relations where pursuit of the national interest is the foundation of the realist school.
Scientific Meathod
Systematic experimentation and rational deduction over a reliance on learning and church theology.
Taxes on agricultural products. Usually one-tenth of the total.
Gaspard de Coligny
Admiral of France and Protestant leader.
Christian IV
He was the king of Denmark and Norway from 1588 until his death.
Cardinal Richelieu
Consecrated as a bishop in 1607, he later entered politics, becoming a Secretary of State in 1616. He soon rose in both the Church and the state, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624.
Edict of Nantes
"1598, granted Calvinists the same rights as Catholics in a mainly Catholic nation. It was issued by Henry IV of France on April 13, 1598. This paced the way for tolerance and secularism in France. "
Dutch Agricultural Revolution
"Improvements in irrigation, also the use of windmills for power. "
(Mediterranean) Economics
This began to decline in the Mediterranean.
New drugs, operations, magic, alchemy, helped establish the modem pharmacology, "Father of Pharmacology"
Albrecht von Wallenstein
He was a Bohemian soldier and politician who gave his services (an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men) during the Danish Period of the Thirty Years' War to Ferdinand II for no charge except the right to plunder the territories that he conquered.
Long- term process where society and societal values relied less on the influence of the church.
White Mountain (1620)
This was an early battle in the Thirty Years' War in which an army of 20,000 Bohemians and mercenaries were routed by 25,000 men of Ferdinand II's army.
Louis XIV
Convinced his people he ruled by divine right and even possessed magical qualities. As a result he gained huge sums of money to entertain him and his court.
One model of state building where one ruler claimed sole and uncontestable control.
A system in which the ruler had to share power the parliaments made up of elected representatives.
The Fronde (1648-1653)
A series of revolts against Louis XIV which posed an unprecedented threat to the French crown.
Cardinal Mazarin
He acted in the place of Louis XIV when he was young and took constitutional power away from the parlements and caused a number of revolts to take place.
The Sun King
Louis called himself ____ after the Greek God Apollo, to increase his prestige.
The marquise de Maintenon
Louis XIV mistress whom he secretly married after his wife's death.
Catholics whose doctrines and practices resembled some aspects of Protestantism.
Revoking of the Edict of Nantes
In 1685 Louis XIV revoked the ___of ____ and eliminated all the Calvinist's rights.
A network of state officials carrying out orders according to a regular and routine line of authority. Louis XIV relied on them to represent his will in each region.
Governments must intervene to increase national wealth by whatever means possible.
Jean Baptiste-Colbert
A minister in Louis's bureaucracy, he began the new economic doctrine of mercantilism.
Frederick I
The leader of Brandenburg-Prussia, he succeeded in bringing all of the German states into one absolutist state and convinced the Emperor to grant him the title "King in Prussia"
Old Believers
A group who fought against the state-run church and protested the integration of Russian worship with Byzantine tradition.
Jan Sobieski
King of Poland-Lithuania, he tried to bring the country together by fighting the Turks, but could not stop the country's descent to powerlessness.
Charles I
King of England; he tried to exert his power over parliament and sent the country into a civil war. It pitted Puritans against Catholics and gave birth to democratic political and religious movements.
Petition of Right
The English Parliament forced Charles I to agree to not levy taxes without its consent.
Oliver Cromwell
The Puritans united under him to create the New Model Army and defeated the Cavaliers at Naseby in 1645.
Made up of disgruntled soldiers, they wanted to level social distinctions by allowing common people to participate in Parliament. Charles rejected the Their demands.
Rump Parliament
A parliament without Presbyterians, it tried Charles I and killed him. It then abolished the monarchy and House of Lords, and set up a Puritan state with Cromwell at its head.
Lord Protector
Cromwell abolished the Rump Parliament and made himself __ as was regarded very highly in the eyes of English. He died in 1660, which brought the return of the Monarchy.
Charles II
Came into power and promised "a liberty to tender consciences" in an attempt to extend religious toleration. He brought back Anglican beliefs in England.
Brought back fear of French absolutism that was not unfounded, as Charles II was negotiating to work with Louis XIV. He also removed laws against Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his "Declaration of Indulgences."
James II
Came into power after Charles II and was pro-Catholic and absolutist.
William and Mary
The Dutch rulers who gained the throne by invading England and defeating James II' Catholic movement.
Bill of Rights
Passed by Parliament in which William and Mary agreed not to raise a standing army or raise taxes without Parliament's consent.
Glorious Revolution
It was the victory of constitutionalism in England over absolutism in the rest of Europe with the agreement for Parliament to share power with the Monarchs.
Thomas Hobbes
English philosopher whose famous 1648 book Leviathan set the agenda for nearly all subsequent Western political philosophy.
Thomas Hobbes famous book that argued for a social contract and rule by a sovereign. Chaos or war could only be avoided by a strong central government. This is one of the first books on the Social Contract Theory.
John Locke
An English Philosopher who argued a government could only be legitimate if it received the consent of the governed through a social contract and protected the natural rights of life, liberty, and estate.
Tabula Rasa
A theory that individual human beings are born with no innate or built in mental content, in a word, "blank", and that their entire resource of knowledge is built up gradually from their experiences and sensory perceptions of the outside world.
The Enlightenment
The eighteenth century, historical intellectual movement, advocated Reason.
Proponents of the enlightenment, one who saw through popular errors, believed that the spread of knowledge would encourage reform in every aspect of life, desired intellectual freedom.
Republic of Letters
A phrase describing the phenomenon of increased correspondence in the form of letters exchanged between the influential philosophers and other thinkers during the Age of Enlightenment.
Natural Rights
"Universal _______ that are seen as inherent in the nature of people, and not contingent on human actions or beliefs.
Natural Law
How a rational human being, seeking to survive and prosper, would act.
A gathering of stimulating people of quality under the roof of an inspiring host to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings. Brought together Parisian society and the progressive philosophes.
Hold that correct religious beliefs must be founded on human reason and observed features of the natural world, and that these sources reveal the existence of one God or supreme being.
Absence of belief in deities.
French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher. Defended civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right o a fair trial. Wrote the Candide.
Abolition Movement
In England it was started by William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson.
Adam Smith
Wrote Wealth of Nations, helped to create the modem academic discipline of economics, provided the best-known rationales for free trade, capitalism, and libertarianism.
Laissez-Faire Economics
Used as a synonym for strict free market economics namely that a state should not use protectionist measures. a doctrine that says that private initiative and production is best free, opposes economic interventionism and taxation.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
A Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment. Influence the French revolution, socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. Wrote the Social Contract.
Written in 1827 autobiographical novel by Emile de Girardin, based on Girardin's early life.
The Social Contract
Written in 1762 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Gotthold Lessing
A German writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic. Influenced Ithe development of German literature.
Moses Mendelssohn
German Jewish philosopher. Attributable to him is the renaissance of European Jews, Haskalah and the Jewish enlightenment.
lmmanuel Kant
German philosopher. The last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. The philosophical movement known as German idealism developed from his theoretical and practical writings.
Franz Mesmer
Discovered what he called magnetism animal (animal magnetism) and others often called mesmerism. The evolution of Mesmer's ideas and practices led James Braid (physician) (1795·1860) to develop hypnosis in 1842.
Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
A German polymath: he was a poet, novelist, dramatist, humanist, scientist, theorist, painter, and for ten years chief minister of state for the duchy of Weimar. A key figure of German literature and the movement of Weimar Classicism."
Great Awakening
A religious movement among American colonial Protestants in the 1730s to 1740s. A pulling away from ritual and ceremony, it made religion intensely personal to the average person by creating a deep sense of spiritual guilt and redemption."
Israel ben Eliezer
The founder of Hasidic Judaism (Hasidim) he was also known as the Ba'al Shem Tov.
Originated in a time of persecution of the Jewish people. They turned to Talmud study; felt that most expressions of Jewish life had become too academic, that they no longer had any emphasis on spirituality or joy.
John Wesley
Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. Methodists, under Wesley's direction, became leaders in many social justice issues of the day including prison reform and abolitionism movements."
Originated in 18th century Britain. Originally it appealed especially to workers, agricultural workers, and slaves. Theologically, most are Armenian, emphasizing that all people can be saved.
Refers to a group of people whose social and political opinions are determined primarily by concern for property values and personal appearance of wealth. Ranked below the nobility, their status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth.
Masonic Lodges
Often termed a Private Lodge or Constituent Lodge in Constitutions is the basic organization of Freemasonry.
Neoclassical Art
Severe and unemotional form of art harkening back to the grandeur of ancient Greece and Rome. Its rigidity was a reaction to the over bred Rococo style and the emotional charged Baroque style. Part of a general revival of interest in classical thought.
Was a place where people who were unable to support themselves could go to live and work.
John Kay
The inventor of the flying shuttle, which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution.
The Spinning Jenny
A multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented circa 1764 by James Hargreaves.
The Water Frame
It is an extension of the spinning frame, both of which are credited to Richard Arkwright but were actually invented by Thomas Highs and John Kay.
The Putting out System
A means of subcontracting work. It was also known as the workshop system. In putting out, work was contracted by a central agent to subcontractors who completed the work in their own facility, usually their own home.
Enlightened Despots
The rulers who followed a form of government where rulers were influenced by both Enlightenment and Absolutist ideals.
The War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
Became inevitable after Maria Theresa of Austria had succeeded her father Charles VI in his Habsburg dominions in 1740, namely becoming Archduchess of Austria. Ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.
Maria Theresa
The eldest daughter of Emperor Charles VI, who promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction to allow her to succeed to the Habsburg monarchy, and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
The Seven Years War (1756-1763)
The first conflict in human history to be fought around the globe. Involved all major powers of the world: Prussia, Great Britain and colonies, and Hanover were pitted against Austria, France and colonies, the Russian Empire, Sweden, and Saxony.
Canton System
Served as a means for China to control trade within its own country. It limited the ports to which the British traders could bring in goods to China.
Frederick II (Frederick the Great)
The Hohenzollern dynasty, ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. He was the third and last King in Prussia; beginning in 1772 he used the title King of Prussia.
Joseph II
Was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 17-90 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. Was one of the so-called "enlightened monarchs."
Catherine II (Catherine the Great)
Sometimes referred to as an epitome of the "enlightened despot"- reigned as Empress of Russia. For some 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death.
Pope Clement XIV
Born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio GanganeIli, was __ from 1769 to 1774. At the time of his election, he was the only Franciscan friar in the College of Cardinals.
Louis XVI
Was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. National Convention found him guilty of treason, and executed him on 21 January 1793.
The economic status of peasants under feudalism, specifically in the manorial economic system (also known as seigneurialism) and is a condition of bondage or modified slavery.
Leopold II
Was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1790-1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. He was a son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis 1. Was one of the "enlightened monarchs".
The Physiocrats
A group of economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from agriculture. Their theories originated in France and were most popular during the second half of the 18th century.
Jacques Turgot
A French economist and statesman. Best known work: Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Wealth.
Flour War in France (1775)
In the spring of __ , this series of food riots shook the villages and countryside around Paris.
Emelian Pugachev
Born in 1740 or 1742 and executed in 1775, was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great Cossack insurrection during the reign of Catherine II.
John Wilkes
An English radical, journalist and politician. Opponent of the harsh criminal code.
Gordon Riots (1780)
A term used to refer to a number of events in a predominantly Protestant religious uprising in London, England, in 1780, aimed against the Roman Catholic Relief Act, 1778.
Boston Tea Party
A protest by the American colonists against Great Britain in which they destroyed many crates of tea bricks on-ships in Boston Harbor. The incident has been seen as helping to spark the American Revolution.
The American Revolution
A political movement during the last half of the 18th century that resulted in the creation of a new nation in 1776, and ended British control of the Thirteen Colonies.
Declaration of Independence
An act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the "Thirteen United Colonies" were now independent states and formed a new nation.
Denis Diderot
A French philosopher and writer. He was a prominent figure in the Enlightenment, and was the editor-in-chief of the famous Encyclopedia.
Diplomatic Revolution
A term applied to the reversal of longstanding diplomatic alliances which were upheld until the War of Austrian Succession and then reversed in the Seven Years' War.
Partition of Poland (1772)
Ended the existence of a sovereign Commonwealth. They involved Prussia, Russia and Habsburg Austria dividing up the Commonwealth lands among themselves. Three partitions took place: August 5, 1772. January 23, 1793. October 24, 1795.
James Watt
A Scottish inventor and engineer whose improvements to the steam engine were fundamental to the changes wrought by the Industrial Revolution.
The members of the political movement that sought to abolish the practice of slavery. It began during the Enlightenment and grew to large proportions during the nineteenth century; it largely succeeded.
An artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. In part a revolt against aristocratic, social, land political norms of the Enlightenment period and a reaction against the rationalization of nature.
Madame Marie Therese Geoffrin
A French hostess who played an interesting part in French literary and artistic life.
Emilie du Chatelet
A French mathematician, physicist, and author. In 1737 Published a paper Dissertation sur la nature et la propagation du feu, based on research into the science of fire that foresaw what is today known as infra-red radiation and the nature of light.
David Hume
A Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian. He is one of the most important figures of the history of Western philosophy and of The Scottish Enlightenment.
Josiah Wedgwood
An English potter, credited with the industrialization of the manufacture of pottery. He was a member of the Darwin-Wedgwood family, most famously including his grandson, Charles Darwin.
Ludwig van Beethoven
German composer. He is regarded as one of the great composers in the history of music, and was the predominant figure in the period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music. Also a celebrated pianist, conductor, and violinist.
Peter III
Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. According to most historians, he was mentally immature and very pro-Prussian, which made him an unpopular leader. He was supposedly assassinated as a result of a conspiracy led by his wife, who succeeded him.
Treaty of Paris (1763)
Often called the Peace of Paris and was signed on February 10, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement.
Gustavus III of Sweden
King of from 1771 until his death. He was the eldest son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great.
Jean-Paul Marat
Swiss-born French scientist and physician who made much of his career in the United Kingdom, but is best-known as an-activist in the French Revolution. He was stabbed to death in his bathtub by self-proclaimed Girondist Charlotte Corday.
Vendee Revolt
During the French Revolution, the 1793- 1796 uprising in the Vendee, variously known as the Uprising, Insurrection, Revolt, Vendean Rebellion, or Wars in the Vendee, was the largest internal counter-revolution to the new Republic.
Georges-Jacques Danton
(October 26, 1759 - April, 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution.
The Thermidorian Reaction
Revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of Reign of Terror, leading to the arrest and execution of Robespierre and several other leading members of the Committee of Public Safety.
The Directory
Held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. Five Directors shared power.
Napoleon Bonaparte
A general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799 to 18 May 1804, and Emperor of the French.
King Gustavus III
He fell victim to a widespread conspiracy among his aristocratic enemies. Shot in the back by Jacob Johan Anckarstrom at a midnight masquerade at the Royal Swedish Opera in Stockholm, in March 16, 1792, he died on March 29.
Tadeusz Kosciuszko
Polish and Lithuanian national hero, general and a leader of 1794 uprising (which bears his name) against the Russian Empire. He fought in the American Revolutionary War as a colonel in the Continental Army on the side of Washington.
Francois Dominique Toussaint L' Ouverture
One of the leaders of the Haitian Revolution. He is considered as one of the fathers of the Haitian nation
Haitian Slave Revolt
The most successful of the many African slave rebellions in the Western Hemisphere and established Haiti as a free, black republic, the first of its kind.
The First Consul
The title given to one of the three leaders of the French government installed in 1799. Napoleon held this post.
Poland (1793-1795)
The country was partitioned by its neighbors and erased from the map in 1795. The idea of Polish independence was kept alive by events inside and outside of Poland.
This progression, during the French Revolution is a conventional description of the results of a number of separate policies, conducted by various governments of France, to become atheist.
Storming of the Bastille
This event on July 14, 1789 was an important symbolic development in the French Revolution. Its-conquest marked the beginning of open rebellion against the King of France. The event is commemorated each year in France on Bastille Day.
The Great Fear
Refers to the period of July and August f189, when peasants sacked the castles of the nobles and burned the documents that recorded their feudal obligations.
4 August 1789
On this day, in France members of the National Constituent Assembly took an oath to end feudalism and abandon their privileges.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
1789. Defined rights as liberty, property, security, and resistance of oppression.
Olympe de Gouges
A playwright and journalist whose feminist writings reached a large audience. A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. Wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman.
The Constitution of 1791
Adopted by the National Constituent Assembly during the period now known as the French Revolution, went into effect in September 1791 but, due to a series of constitutional crises, had effectively ceased to function as a national constitution by August 17,1792.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Subordinated the Roman Catholic Church-to the French government. Law confiscated the Church's French land holdings and banned monastic vows.
Banknotes issued by the National Constituent Assembly in France during the French Revolution. This currency was issued after the confiscation of church properties in 1790 because the government was bankrupt.
Flight to Varennes
The Royal Family's attempt to flee France June 20-21, 1791.
Literally those without breeches, the masses of Paris.
Jacobin Club
This was the most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution. One of its most prominent members was Maximilian Robespierre; journalist Jean-Paul Marat is also associated with the club, though never a member.
Attack on Tuileries Palace (1792)
Louis XVI tried to escape on the evening of June 20, 1791, but was captured at Varennes and was returned to his palace. It was later stormed on August 10, 1792 by the Paris mob, which overwhelmed and massacred the guards.
The National Convention
First met September 20, 1792; two days later, declared a republic. This (July 27, 1794) is sometimes referred to as the "Thermidorian Convention.
A political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French-Revolution. They were a group of individuals holding certain opinions and principles in common rather than an organized political party.
The Mountain
A political group, whose members, called ____, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. The term, which was first used during the session of the Legislative Assembly, did not come into general use until 1793.
Execution of Louis XVI (1793)
It took two attempts to sever this monarchs head; his neck too thick to yield to one blow.
Committee of Public Safety
During the Reign of Terror, this committee was effectively the government of France. After the fall of the Mountain, the committee continued, but with reduced powers.
Maximilian Robespierre
One of the best-known leaders of the French Revolution. His supporters knew him as "the Incorruptible" because of his austere moral devotion to revolutionary political change. He was an influential member of the Committee of Public Safety.
Levee en Masse
Wrench term for mass conscription. The modern _____ __ _____ was born in the French Revolutionary Wars.
Revolutionary Armies
Refers to the military of France during the period between the fall of the ancient regime under Louis XVI in 1792 and the formation of the First French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804. These armies were characterized by their-revolutionary fervor.
The Terror
In the French Revolution, ____ usually (but not always) refers to State violence.
The Republic of - Virtue
In this speech, Robespierre provided a comprehensive statement of his political theory while advocating the use of terror in defending democracy, which he equated with virtue.
Liberty Trees
A symbol of the French Revolution, the first being planted in 1790 by a pastor of a Vienne village, inspired by the 1765 Liberty Tree of Boston.
Festival of Unity
The Sanculottide celebrated in leap years should be the festival of the national unity.
Cult of Reason
Official religion at the height of radical Jacobinism in France from 1793-94.
Cult of the Supreme Being
A religion based on deism devised by Maximilian Robespierre, intended to become the state religion after the French Revolution.
Metric System
Decimal system of measurement based on the meter and the gram. Has been internationally recognized as the standard metric system. Invented during French Revolution.
Charlotte Corday
The assassin of Jean-Paul Marat.
General Maximum
Created on September 9, 1793, extended the Law of Suspects to most other areas of the revolutionary French economy.
22 September 1792 Start of a new calendar
Years appear in writing as Roman numerals (usually), counted from the beginning of the 'Republican Era'. September 22, 1792: the day the French First Republic was proclaimed, one day after the Convention abolished the monarchy.
Helvetic Republic
A state lasting for five years, from 1798 to-1803.During-the French Revolutionary Wars, the revolutionary .armies boiled eastward, enveloping Switzerland in their battles against Austria.
Napoleon invades Egypt
March 1798, Bonaparte proposed a military expedition to seize his province of the Ottoman Empire, seeking to protect French interests and undermine Britain's access to India: among their discoveries was the finding of the Rosetta Stone.
The Society of United Irishmen
This was a republican political organization in eighteenth century Ireland that sought independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Jacques-Louis David
A highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style. In the 1780s his cerebral brand of history painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo frivolity towards a classical austerity and severity.
The Atlantic Revolutions
Is the term for a wave of late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century revolutions associated with the Enlightenment.
French Financial Crisis
French monarchy had operated for many years without resorting to a legislature. Since 1614, French Kings had managed their fiscal affairs by increasing the burden of the ancient and unequal system of taxes.
The French Revolution (1789)
Revolution brought on by drought and famine, and increased aggression towards the richer ruling classes. French "Sans-culottes" wanted "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity."
Met for the first time since 1614; it was the French Parliament.
First Estate
The clergy, both high (generally siding with the nobility, and it often was recruited amongst its younger sons) and low.
Second Estate
The nobility; Technically, but not usually of much relevance, this also included the Royal Family.
Third Estate
Everyone not included in the First or Second Estate. At times this term refers specifically to the bourgeoisie, the middle class, but it also included the sans-culottes: the laboring lass. Also included were lawyers and merchants.
National Assembly (1789)
Declared June 17, 1789 by the Third Estate. Some clergy and nobility joined them June 19th.
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge signed by 577 members of France's Third Estate during the Estates-General of June 20, 1789 in a local tennis court; it stated that the members wouldn't disband until they had a new French Constitution.
Louis XVI
King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, found guilty of treason, and executed on January 21, 1793. His execution signaled the end of the absolutist monarchy in France.
Born an Archduchess of Austria, and later became Queen of France. She was married to Louis XVI of France at age 15. She is perhaps best remembered for her death. She was executed by guillotine at the height of the French Revolution in 1791.
Jacques Necker
French statesman and finance minister of Louis XVI. Proposed that the King hold a Royal Session to conciliate the divided Estates.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 - 5 May 1821) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799 to 18 May 1804, Emperor of the French Empire.
Confederation of the Rhine
Lasted from 1806 to 1813 and was formed initially from 16 German states by Napoleon after he defeated Habsburg's Francis II and Russia's Alexander I in the Battle of Austerlitz.
The Continental System
A foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. By 1804, France was the dominant military force in continental Europe.
Groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th- century Italy. Their goals were patriotic anti-liberal and they-played an important role in the Risorgimento and the early years of Italian nationalism.
Invasion of Russia
1812Led by Napoleon I of France in 1812 was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. The campaign reduced the French and allied invasion forces to less than two percent of their initial strength.
Battle of Borodino
It was fought by the French Grande Armee under Napoleon I of France and the Imperial Russian army of Alexander I near the village of Borodino The clash was a pivotal point in the campaign as it was the last offensive battle fought by Napoleon in Russia.
Battle of Nations
Was the most decisive defeat suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte in the Napoleonic Wars. It is considered the largest conflict in Europe [before World War I, with over 500,000 troops involved.
Island of Elba
Following the Treaty of Fontainebleau, French emperor Napoleon I was exiled to this after his forced abdication in 1814. He was allowed to keep a personal guard of six hundred men and was made the Emperor of the island.
Joseph M.W. Turner
An English Romantic landscape painter and watercolorist, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism.
Eugene Delacroix
(April 26, 1798 - August 13, 1863) was the most important of the French Romantic painters. Delacroix's use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of color profoundly shaped the work of the Impress.
Ludwig van Beethoven
A German composer. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest composers in the history of music, and was the predominant figure in the transitional period between the Classical.
George IV
King of the United Kingdom and Ireland from 29 January 1820 until his death. For most of George's regency-and reign, the Lord-of Liverpool controlled the government.
Sir Robert Peel
The Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from December 10, 1834 to April 8, 1835, concept of the police force while Home Secretary, oversaw the formation of the Conservative Party out of the shattered Tory Party, and repealed the Com Law.
Great Reform Bill (1832)
An Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom.
The term was coined when an insurgency of the Scottish Presbyterians known as Covenanters marched from the south west of Scotland on Edinburgh in 1648, with the country folk using the word "whiggamore" to urge on their horses.
An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. The word ideology was coined by Count Antoine Destutt de Tracy in the late 18th century to define a "science of ideas."
An ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds hat liberty is the primary political value. Liberalism has its roots in the Western Age of Enlightenment. Broadly speaking, liberalism emphasizes individual rights.
An ideology that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. Nationalism typically-makes certain political claims.
Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. The ensuing period is called the _______, following French usage, and is characterized by a sharp conservative reaction.
Joseph Fouche
A French statesman and Minister of Police under Napoleon Bonaparte.
Among very broad movement of new age music. Strongly influenced and sometimes even based on the early, baroque or classical music especially in terms of melody and composition.
Congress of Vienna
The Congress was concerned with determining the entire shape of Europe after the Napoleonic wars, with the exception of the terms of peace with France, which had already been decided by the Treaty of Paris, signed a few months earlier, on May 30, 1814.
KIemens von Mettenich
An Austrian politician and statesman and perhaps the most important diplomat of his era. He was a major figure on the negotiations leading to the Congress of Vienna and is considered a paradigm of foreign policy management.
Robert Castlereagh
An Anglo-Irish politician born in Dublin who represented the United Kingdom at the Congress of Vienna.
German ______ are a special type of student fraternities; they were founded in the 19th century as associations of university students inspired by liberal and patriotic ideas.
New Paternalism
Neo-prohibitionism is the belief that the influence of alcohol on modem society should be reduced, either bylegislation restricting the sale and use of alcohol, or by changes to social norms.
The ethical doctrine that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall utility. It is thus a form of consequentialism, Utility-the good to be maximized.
Duke of Wellington
Derived from Wellington in Somerset, is a hereditary title and the senior Dukedom in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first holder of the title was Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1769-1852).
Josephine de Beauhamais wife of Napoleon Bonaparte became Empress of the French. Through her daughter, Hortense, she was the maternal grandmother of Napoleon III.
Legion of Honor
The Legion d'honneur is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of the First Republic, on May 19, 1802. It's the premier order of France.
Frederick William II
The son of King Frederick William II of Prussia, Frederick William was born in Potsdam and became Crown Prince in 1786, when his "ather ascended the throne.
George Stephenson
George Stephenson was an English mechanical engineer who designed the famous and historically important steam locomotive named Rocket and is known as the "Father of Railways."
_____ provide a three-year course of further secondary education for children between the ages of 15 and 18: "Pupils are prepared for he baccalaureat, the baccalaureat can lead to higher education studies or directly to professional life."
Louis XVIII was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he dated his reign from 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleon's return in the Hundred Days.
Hundred Days
The Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis.
Battle of Waterloo
This battle, fought on June 18, 1815, was Napoleon Bonaparte's last battle. After his exile to Elba, he had reinstalled himself on the throne of France for a Hundred Days.
St. Helena
Place of exile of Napoleon Bonaparte between 1815 and his death in 1821.
Sir Walter Scott
A prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe during his time. In some ways he was the first author to have a truly international career in his lifetime.
Ferdinand VII
King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. Arrested for his complicity in the conspiracy of the Escorial in which liberal reformers aimed at securing the help of the emperor Napoleon.
Spanish Revolt (1820)
(1820-1823) Fought in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. It was a conflict between royalists and liberals with France intervening on the side of the royalists.
Decembrist Revolt (1825)
Attempted by Imperial Russia by army officers who led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14, 1825. Because these events occurred in December, the rebels were called the Decembrists.
Nicholas I
Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. In 1825, when Alexander I sudddenly died, Nicholas was caught between swearing allegiance to his second elfish brother Constantine and accepting the throne for himself.
Treaty of Adrianople
Concluded the Russo-Turkish War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. It was signed on September 14, 1829 in _____ by Russia's Count Aleksey Orlov and by Turkey's Adbul Kad.
Simon Bolivar
Born in July 24, 1783 in Caracas, Venezuela; died December 17, 1830, in Santa Marta, Colombia. A leader of several independence movements throughout South America.
Monroe Doctrine
A U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers should no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the nations of the Americas. United States planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and its colonies.
French Revolution (1830)
A vital period of the history of France and Europe as a whole. During this time, democracy replaced the absolute monarchy in France, and the country's Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo a radical restructuring.
Charles X
France and Navarre (1757-1836); was king of France from 1824-1830 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated rather than become a constitutional monarch. He was the last king of the Bourbon line.
King of the French (1773-1850) reigned as King of the French from 1830 to1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. He was, to date, the last king ever to rule France.
Revolt in Belgium (1830)
Influenced by the Enlightenment, Hapsburg Emperor Joseph II pushed through a series of large-scale reforms in the Austrean Netherlands in the 1780s, designed to radically modernize and centralize the political, judicial and administrative system.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
Prince de Benevente (February 2, 1754 - May 17, 1838) was French diplomat. He worked successfully from the regime of Louis XVI, through the French Reolution and then under Napoleon I and Louis XVIII.
A political philosophy that favors traditional values.
Edmund Burke
An Anglo-Irish statesman, author orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served formany years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig Party. He is chiefly remembered for his support of the American colonies.
A group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity. It originated in 18th century Britain, and through vigorous missionary activity, spread throughout the British Empire and the United States.
Religious Revivalism
The 18th century, Age of Enlightenment had a chilling effect on spiritual movements, but this was countered by the Methodist revival of John Wesley.
Industrial Revolution
This was the major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions in the late 18th and early 19th century that began in Britain and spread throughout the world. During that time, the economy based on manual labor.
The result of a cavalry charge into the crowd at a public meeting at St. Peter's Fields, Manchester, England.
Six Acts
Following the Peterloo massacre of August 16, 1819, the UK government acted to prevent any future disturbances by the introduction of new legislation, the so-called six Acts which labeled any meeting for radical reform.
This was a social movement of English textile workers in the early 1800's who protested, often by destroying textile machines, against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, which they felt threatened their jobs.
John Locke
(August 29, 1632 - October 28, 1704) An influential English philosopher. In epistemology, Locke has often been classified as a British Empiricist, along with David Hume and George berkeley. He is equally important as a social contract theory.
Jeremy Bentham
An English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He argued in favor of individual and economic freedom, including the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, animal rights and the end of slavery.
This refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that encompass a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control.