61 terms

Management segment 6

test 2 chapter 11: organization culture and change
STUDY
PLAY
workplace spirituality
creates meaning and shared community among members.
characteristics of workplace spirituality
meaningful purpose, trust and respect, honesty and openness, personal growth and development, worker friendly practices, ethics and social responsibility
multiculturalism
involves pluralism and respect for diversity. aka age, status, gender (strive to include everyone)
characteristics of multiculturalism
pluralism, structural integration, informal network integration, absence of prejudice and discrimination, minimum intergroup conflict.
multiculturalism: pluralism
members of minority and majority cultures influence values, beliefs, behaviors (core beliefs)
multiculturalism: structural integration
presentation of minorities in all levels of all functions
multiculturalism: informal network integration
mentoring by majority, who you hang out with and talk to while you are in the break room.
multiculturalism: absence of prejudice and discrimination
workshops to achieve absence
diversity(definition)
describes differences among people at work, such as age, gender, race, religion
Diversity characteristics
diversity alone does not guarantee positive performance impact, diversity must be included in training and human resource practices, positive impact results when diversity is embedded in the organizational culture( the difference between perception and reality)
recent trends in diversity
physical ability(having members of all physical ability), background from upbringing status, married vs not married, kids vs no kids, education, geographic factor, military experience, etc
organizational subcultures
cultures based on shared work responsibilities and/or personal characteristics
common subcultures
occupations and functions, ethnicity or national cultures, gender and generations
subcultures: ethnocentrism
the belief that one's subculture is superior to all others
challenges for minorities and women
glass ceiling( a practice preventing to advance), harassment and discrimination, minorities may adapt by exhibiting biculturalism
biculturalism
adopting characteristics of the majority culture
example of glass ceiling
one black female leading a fortune 500 company today
questions asked for a competing values model
what dimensions does an organization pay attention to?, what values does an organization emphasize?, what kind of culture does an organization develop?
competing values model: group
teamwork, development, morale. internal&flexible
competing values model: internal
with in the company, horizontal axis
competing value model: flexibility
dont do same thing, go with the flow, vertical axis
competing value model: bureaucracy
stability, rules and procedures, order, "control freaks". internal&control
competing value model: control
standard way, don't deviate,vertical axis
competing value model: rational
profitability, efficiency, goal achievement(shareholders and stockholders). external&control
competing value model: external
outside the walls of the company,horizontal axis
competing value model: adheaucracy
risk taking, growth, creativity. flexibility&external
profiles of culture example
apple: relative strength would be adheaucracy, other 3 quads not as strong-> dominant culture
strong comprehensive profile
value everything, no core incompetencies, change quickly
generation differences
intergenerational differences can cause conflict and misunderstanding, by understanding the traits of each generation, you can gain insight into why you co- workers behave the way they do
generations: traditionalists
born before world war 2
generations: baby boomers
born during world war 2, 1960s, parents
generations: x generation
born in 1960-1980s
generations: millennials
born 1980s- 2000s
class discussion: millennials
fantasy or reality? everyone is a winner; some are losers, technology enables work; technology disables work ethic,great generation; incorrigible generation, failure is avoided; failure happens, softly coached; sternly commanded, delay adulthood; important life phases
organizational culture
system of shared beliefs and values within organizations that guide behavior
observable culture
what one sees and hears when walking around the organization (visible actions and events)
- not instinct, has to be observed and taught
- culture is social?
- heroes, ceremonies, rites and rituals, legends and stories, metaphors and symbols
core culture
underlying assumptions and beliefs that influence behavior and contribute to the observable culture (underlying values)
ex) innovation and risk taking, ethics and integrity, social responsibility, customer service, performance, teamwork
benefits of strong culture
- commit members to behave in organizations best interests
- discourage dysfunctional work behavior
- encourage functional work behavior
- are performance-oriented
- emphasize teamwork
- allow for risk taking
- encourage innovation
- value the well being of people
core values
beliefs and values shared by organization members
"just know"
inaccurate?
core culture: beliefs
- beliefs about the most fundamental aspects of reality (time, space, and human nature)
- may be unconscious, taken for granted
realities of time horizons
"western" temporal reality
-> 50 - 100 year time capsule
"eastern" temporal reality
-> 5000 year time capsule
time horizon research: the study
- allen c. bluedorn (the human organization of time)
time horizon research: the findings
- future and past time horizons are positively correlated
- does your past time horizon influence your future time horizon?
past time horizon
how far back do you look
future time horizon
how far into the future do you look
organizational age
positively correlated with future and past time horizons (how old is your company?)
total horizon span
past + future
positively correlated with earning per share (how profitable is your company?)
polychronicity
the extent to which people prefer to be engaged in two or more tasks simultaneously
test in class
monochronic
dont like change, like to be on time (punctual)
polychronic
like change, dont like to be on time (punctual)
polychronicity research results
positive correlation with P scenario
negative correlation with M scenario
positive correlation with change in general
punctuality
being on time/on schedule
negatively correlated with polychronicity
personal space distance
personal territory and belongings
negatively correlated with polychronicity
polychronic view of time
cycle? (repeating loop)
continuous
infinite
monochronic view of time
linear (non-repeating line)
discrete
finite
monochronic characteristics
- concentrate on the job; do one thing at a time
- take time commitments (deadlines, schedules) seriously; schedule driven
- low-context and need information; what? help!
- committed to the job; loyal to company job
- adhere religiously to plans; daytimer
- concerned about not disturbing others; follow rules of privacy and consideration closely
- show great respect for private property; seldom borrow or lend (guilt in borrowing)
- are accustomed to short-term relationships; friend during product job
polychronic characteristics
- distractible and subject to interruptions; do many things
- consider time commitments an objective to be achieved, if possible (product driven)
- high context and already have information; get it
- committed to people and human relationships; loyal to customers and coworkers
- change plans often and easily; which way does wind blow?
- more concerned with those who are family, friends, and close business associates than with privacy; social
- borrow and lend things often and easily; share readily
- have strong tendency to build lifetime relationships; friends for life
observable culture: heroes
people singled out for special attention and whose accomplishments are recognized with praise and admiration
- founders and role models (sam walton)
observable culture: ceremonies, rites and rituals
ceremonies and meetings, planned or spontaneous
- Celebrate important occasions and performance accomplishments
- veture department store
observable culture: legends and stories
oral histories and tales, told and retold among members
- dramatic sagas and incidents in the life of the organization
- nordstroms; customer service
observable culture: metaphors and symbols
special use of language and other nonverbal expressions
- Communicate important themes and values of the organization
- always low prices; walmart
- apple