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The North Vs. The South Parts 3-5 (Unit 4)
Terms in this set (13)
Davis was an unsuccessful president. He was a reasonably able administrator and the dominating figure in his government, encountering little interference from the generally tame members of his unstable cabinet and serving, in effect, as his own secretary of war.
Ulysses S. Grant
As Commanding General, Grant worked closely with President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the Civil War.
Robert E. Lee
Early in 1862, Davis named Robert E. Lee as his principal military advisor. But in fact, Davis had no intention of sharing control of strategy with anyone. (4) After a few months, Lee left Richmond to command forces in the field, and for the next two years Davis planned strategy alone.
The Union had an overwhelming advantage in naval power. It gave its navy two important roles in the war. One was enforcing a blockade of the Southern coast (Anaconda Plan).
Monitor & Merrimac/ Virginia
Foremost among them was an ironclad warship, constructed by plating with iron a former U.S. frigate, the Merrimac, which the Yankees had scuttled in Norfolk harbor when Virginia seceded. On March 8, 1862, the refitted Merrimac, renamed the Virginia, left Norfolk to attack a blockading squadron of wooden ships at nearby Hampton Roads.
"King Cotton" Diplomacy
Southern leaders hoped to counter the strength of the British antislavery forces by arguing that access to Southern cotton was vital to the English and French textile industries. In the end a failure.
Two Confederate diplomats, James M. Mason and John Slidell, had slipped through the then ineffective Union blockade to Havana, Cuba, where they boarded and English steamer, the Trent, for England. Waiting in Cuban waters was the American frigate San Jacinto, commanded by the impetuous Charles Wilkes. Acting without authorization, Wilkes stopped the British vessel, arrested the diplomats, and carried them in triumph to Boston. The British government demanded the release of the prisoners, reparations, and an apology. Lincoln and Secretary of State Seward, aware that Wilkes had violated maritime law and unwilling to risk war with England, dragged out the negotiations until American public opinion cooled off. Then they released the diplomats with an indirect apology.
A second diplomatic crisis produced problems that lasted for years. Unable to construct large ships itself, the Confederacy bought six ships, known as commerce destroyers, from British shipyards. The best known of them was the Alabama. The U.S. protested that this sale of military equipment to a belligerent violated the laws of neutrality, and the protests became the basis, after the war, of damage claims by the United States against Great Britain.
Lincoln had decided even prior to the Battle of Antietam to free the slaves in the Confederacy but was looking for a significant Union victory, or in the case of Antietam, the absence of a clear loss to announce his decision. So on September 22, 1862, after the Union "victory" at the Battle of Antietam, the president announced his intention to use his war powers to issue an executive order freeing all slaves in the Confederacy.
Atlanta and General Sherman
General Sherman's capture of Atlanta, Georgia, early in September, rejuvenated Northern morale and boosted Republican prospects.
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