44 terms

Unit 5 Chapter 16, Chapter 18, Chapter 19

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Terms in this set (...)

Population of White Southerners
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% of White Southerners belonging to slave holding families or owning slaves
25% or one-fourth778
Panic of 1857
The panic of 1857 was caused by over-speculation in the West and currency inflation due to the inrush of Californian gold. The North was the hardest hit, while the South continued to flourish with its cotton.
Northerners came up with the idea of the government giving 160-acre plots of farming land to pioneers for free. Two groups opposed the idea: Eastern industrialists feared that the free land would drain its supply of workers, and the South feared that the West would fill up with free-soilers who would form anti-slavery states, unbalancing the Senate even more.
The Tariff of 1857 lowered import taxes to about 20%. The North blamed it for causing the panic, because they felt they needed higher duties for more protection. This gave the Republicans two economic issues for the election of 1860: protection for the unprotected and farms for the farmless.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852 as an attempt to show the North the horrors of slavery. Uncle Tom's Cabin painted a picture of slavery for people in the North who really hadn't known much about it before. The book seemed to light a fire under the abolitionist movement. It also caused people in the South to feel attacked by their Northern brothers. It helped to start the Civil War and for the North to win it.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing white male settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory.
"Personal Liberty Laws"
The personal liberty laws were laws passed by several U.S. states in the North to counter the Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850. Different laws did this in different ways, including allowing jury trials for escaped slaves and forbidding state authorities from cooperating in their capture and return.
John C Calhoun's Plan
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Wilmot Proviso
Soon after the war began, President James K. Polk sought the appropriation of $2 million as part of a bill to negotiate the terms of a treaty. The Wilmot Proviso was designed to eliminate slavery within the land acquired as a result of the Mexican War (1846-48). Northern antislaveryites had rallied behind the Wilmot Proviso, which flatly prohibited slavery in any territory acquired in the Mexican War. Southern senators had blocked the passage of the proviso, but
the issue would not die, Although the measure was blocked in the southern-dominated Senate, it enflamed the growing controversy over slavery, and its underlying principle helped bring about the formation of the Republican Party in 1854.
Webster's Seven of March Speech
Daniel Webster called for people to make concessions and support Clay's proposals, for the sake of maintaining the Union (Seventh of March Speech). He was against slavery, but he viewed the collapse of the Union as worse.
Bleeding Kansas
Bleeding Kansas is the term used to described the period of violence during the settling of the Kansas territory. In 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act overturned the Missouri Compromise's use of latitude as the boundary between slave and free territory and instead, using principle of popular sovereignty, it decreed that the residents would determine whether the area became a free state or a slave state. Proslavery and free-state settlers flooded into Kansas to try to influence the decision. Violence soon erupted as both factions fought for control. Abolitionist John Brown led anti-slavery fighters in Kansas before his famed raid on Harper's Ferry.
Immigration to the South
The United States experienced major waves of immigration during the colonial era, the first part of the 19th century and from the 1880s to 1920. Many immigrants came to America seeking greater economic opportunity, while some, such as the Pilgrims in the early 1600s, arrived in search of religious freedom. Competetion for the South especially for the slaves.
Free-Soilers
The Free Soil Party was created by antislavery men of the North who didn't trust Cass or Taylor. They supported federal aid for internal improvements. They argued that with slavery, wage labor would wither away and with it, the chance for the American worker to own property. The convention adopted a platform that called for:
Opposition to the extension of slavery into the territories
Support for national internal improvement programs
Support for moderate tariffs designed for revenue only
Support for the enactment of a homestead law.
William S. Seward and the Young Guards
William H. Seward, the wiry and husky-throated freshman senator from New York, was the able spokesman for many of the younger northern radicals. A strong antislaveryite, he came out unequivocally
against concession. Seward argued earnestly that Christian legislators must obey God's moral law as well as man's mundane law. He therefore appealed, with reference to excluding slavery in the territories, to an even "higher law'' than the Constitution.
Matthew Perry
The Washington government was now eager to pry open the bamboo gates of Japan. It dispatched a fleet of awesome, smoke-belching warships, commanded by Commodore Matthew C. Perry, brother of the hero of the Battle of Lake Erie in 1813. By a judicious display of force and tact, he persuaded the Japanese in 1854 to sign a memorable treaty. It provided for only a commercial foot in the door, but it
was the beginning of an epochal relationship between the Land of the Rising Sun and the Western
world.
The Dred Scott Case (Story and decision )
Story and Decision: Dread Scott, a slave who had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory, sued for his freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. In Dred Scott vs. Stanford, the Supreme Court first ruled that because Scott was a black slave and not a citizen, he could not sue in Federal courts. The Court also ruled that because a slave was private property, he could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery.
The Dred Scott Case (Consequence)
Consequences: The Court also ruled that Congress lacked power to ban slavery in the U.S. territories. Finally, the Court declared that the rights of slave owners were constitutionally protected by the Fifth Amendment because slaves were categorized as property.
Nativists
Nativism is the political position of preserving status for certain established inhabitants of a nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants.
Free Blacks in the North
In some Northern states, after emancipation, blacks were legally allowed to vote, marry whites, file lawsuits, or sit on juries. In most, they were not. But even where the right was extended by law, often the white majority did not allow it to happen. In Massachusetts in 1795, despite the absence of any law prohibiting on black voting, Judge Winthrop and Pemberton wrote that Negroes could neither elect nor be elected to office in that state.
1 since black men had the right to vote there, none ever dared do so.
When Ohios prohibition against blacks testifying in legal cases involving white people was lifted in 1849, observers acknowledged that, at least in the southern part of the state, where most of the blacks lived, social prejudice would keep the ban in practical effect.
John Brown (Harper's Ferry-date. story, outcome, effects)
Abolitionist John Brown developed a plan to secretly invade the South, call upon the slaves to rise, give the slaves weapons, and establish a black free state.
In October 1859, he seized the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Because many of his supporters failed to show up, he was caught and sent to death by hanging. When Brown died, he lived on as a martyr to the abolitionist cause.
Reasons and Support for Secession
Many maintain that the primary cause of the war was the Southern states' desire to preserve the institution of slavery. Others minimize slavery and point to other factors, such as taxation or the principle of States' Rights. Two major themes emerge in these documents: slavery and states' rights. All four states strongly defend slavery while making varying claims related to states' rights. Other grievances, such as economic exploitation and the role of the military, receive limited attention in some of the documents.
1848 Presidential Election
Consisted of: Cass and Taylor. At the Democratic National Convention at Baltimore, the Democrats chose General Lewis Cass, a veteran of the war of 1812, as their candidate for presidency. Cass was not against slavery; he supported popular sovereignty. The Whigs, who met in Philadelphia, chose Zachary Taylor as their candidate for presidency. Taylor did not have an official stance on slavery, but he did own many slaves. Zachary Taylor won the election of 1848 (sworn into office in 1849).
"Lame-Duck" James Buchanan
Buchanan was still the "lame duck" president, because Lincoln was not sworn in until 1861. Buchanan did not hold the seceders in the Union by force because he was surrounded by pro-southern advisors and he could find no authority in the Constitution to stop them with force. Another reason that force was not used was because at the time, the Union's army was needed to control the Indians of the West. The Northerners were not eager to use force against the Southerners because that would have ended the possibility of peaceful negotiations.
Know-Nothing Party Platform
The American Party, and commonly named Know Nothing movement, was an American political party that operated on a national basis during the mid-1850s. It promised to purify American politics by limiting or ending the influence of Irish Catholics and other immigrants, thus reflecting nativism and anti-Catholic sentiment. It was empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by German and Irish Catholic immigrants, whom they saw as hostile to republican values and controlled by the Pope in Rome.
Causes of the Mexican War
Texas gained its independence from Mexico in 1836. Initially, the United States declined to incorporate it into the union, largely because northern political interests were against the addition of a new slave state. The Mexican government was also encouraging border raids and warning that any attempt at annexation would lead to war. Nonetheless, annexation procedures were quickly initiated after the 1844 election of Polk, who campaigned that Texas should be "re-annexed" and that the Oregon Territory should be "re-occupied."
Results of the U.S victory in the Mexican War
A huge block of new territory was acquired—approximately 525,000 square miles
The Mexican War and the tide of expansionism unleashed underlined the political control exercised by the South in American political affairs
The addition of new lands touched off new and bitter debates on the slavery issue.
The Americans nearly 13,000 dead included only about 1,700 in combat—the rest succumbed to rampant disease
The war was a proving ground for young military officers (Jackson, Lee, Meade, Sherman, for example) who would soon put their skills to work in the American Civil War.
Freeport Doctrine
Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of seven debates that were arranged from August to October 1858. Lincoln asked Douglas, "What if the people of a territory should vote down slavery?" The Supreme Court in the Dred Scott decision had said that the people could not do this. Douglas's reply to him became known as the "Freeport Doctrine." Douglas argued that no matter how the Supreme Court ruled, slavery would stay down if the people voted it down. Laws to protect slavery would have to be voted on by the territorial legislatures. Douglas won the senatorial election, but Lincoln won the popular vote.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (date, result and effects)
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858 were a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican and incumbent Senator Stephen Douglas, the Democratic Party candidate. At the time, U.S. senators were elected by state legislatures; thus Lincoln and Douglas were trying for their respective parties to win control of the Illinois legislature. The debates previewed the issues that Lincoln would face in the aftermath of his victory in the 1860 presidential election. Although Illinois, itself, was a free state, the main issue discussed in all seven debates was slavery in the United States. On election day, the Democrats won 40 seats in the state house of Representatives, and the Republicans won 35. In the state senate, Republicans held 11 seats, and Democrats held 14. Stephen A. Douglas was reelected by the legislature, 54-46, even though Abraham Lincoln won the popular vote with a percentage of 50.6%, or by 3,402 votes.
Helper's "The Impeding Crisis of the South"
Hinton R. Helper, a non-aristocrat from North Carolina, wrote The Impending Crisis of the South in 1857. He hated both blacks and slavery, and he attempted to use statistics to prove that the non-slave holding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery.
Ostend Manifesto
The secretary of state instructed the American ministers in Spain, England, and France to prepare confidential recommendations for the acquisition of Cuba. It stated that if Spain didn't allow America to buy Cuba for $120 million, then America would attack Cuba on grounds that Spain's continued ownership of Cuba endangered American interests. The document eventually leaked out and the Northerners foiled the President's slave-driven plan.
Attitudes towards free blacks
Wherever they lived, free blacks were often the targets of whites' racist contempt and legal discrimination by both state and national governments. Free blacks were denied the right to vote everywhere save five New England states that had only tiny black populations. Their schools were segregated in much of the North, if they had schools at all; they were barred from serving in state militias or the U.S. Army, from carrying the mails, or securing passports to travel abroad like other citizens.
Election of 1860
The Democrats met in Charleston, South Carolina to choose their candidate. The northern part of the party wanted to nominate Stephen Douglas, but the southern "fire-eaters" saw him as a traitor for his unpopular opposition to the Lecompton Constitution and his Freeport Doctrine reply. The Democrats met again in Baltimore to elect a candidate: Douglas was elected, despite the fact that the southerners again walked out. The southern Democrats met in Baltimore to choose their own Democratic presidential candidate. They chose vice-president John C. Breckenridge. The platform favored the extension of slavery into the territories and the annexation of slave-populated Cuba. Abraham Lincoln won
Effects of the Election of on 1860 on South Carolina
To southerners, Lincoln's election threatened to abolish slavery, and South Carolina seceded from the Union soon after the election. In the following weeks, six more states seceded, and the Confederate States of America was born with Jefferson Davis as president. The attempt by Lincoln to resupply the garrison at Fort Sumter led to the start of the Civil War in April 1861. Southerners viewed the rise of the Republican party as an unacceptable threat to the institution of slavery, and South Carolina called for a secession convention just a few weeks after the 1860 election.
"Black Belt"
"Black Belt": region of the South where most slaves were concentrated; stretched from South Carolina and Georgia into Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
Blacks managed to sustain family life in slavery.
Blacks formed their own religions from a mixture of Christian and African elements.
Responsorial: style of preaching in which the congregation responds to the preacher with remarks of "amen."
The Fugitive Slave Law
By 1850, southerners started to demand stricter fugitive-slave laws. The Fugitive-Slave Law of 1850, the Bloodhound Bill, said that fleeing slaves could not testify on their own behalf and they were denied a jury trial. Northerners who aided slaves trying to escape were subject to fines and jail time. This law was the South's only real gain from the compromise. Some historians argue that the Compromise of 1850 strengthened the Northerner's desire to keep the Union together.
William Walker
Because the Compromise of 1850 prohibited slavery in the land gained in the Mexican War, southern Americans sought new territory to expand slavery. These people were known as "slavocrats." One slavocrat, William Walker, installed himself as the President of Nicaragua in July 1856. He legalized slavery, but was overthrown by surrounding Central American countries and killed in 1860.
Compromise of 1850
Concessions to the North: California admitted as a free state. Territory disputed by Texas and New Mexico to be surrendered to New Mexico. Abolition of the slave trade (but not slavery) in the District of Columbia.

Concessions to the South: The remainder of the Mexican Cession area to be formed into the territories of New Mexico and Utah, without restriction on slavery, hence open to popular sovereignty. Texas to receive $10 million from the federal government as compensation. A more stringent fugitive-slave law, going beyond that of 1793.
Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman an illiterate runaway slave who helped rescue hundreds of slaves through the Underground Railroad, a network of anti-slavery homes that passed slaves from the slave states to Canada.
Abolitionists:
Wendell Phillips
Frederick Douglass
Elijah P. Lovejoy
William Lloyd Garrison
Philips: stopped practicing law in order to dedicate himself to the movement. He joined the American Anti-Slavery Society So highly regarded were his oratorical abilities that he was known as "abolition's Golden Trumpet". Phillips avoided cane sugar and wear no clothing made of cotton, since both were produced by Southern slaves.

Douglass: black abolitionist who lectured for abolitionism; looked to politics to end slavery; published his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.

Lovejoy: was an American Presbyterian minister, journalist, newspaper editor and abolitionist. He was murdered by a pro-slavery mob in Alton, Illinois, during their attack on his warehouse to destroy his press and abolitionist materials.His editorials criticized slavery and other church denominations.

Garrison: wrote a militantly anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator; publicly burned a copy of the Constitution.
Popular Sovereignty
Popular Sovereignty: the idea that the people of a territory should determine their territory's status of slavery. It was popular with politicians because it was a compromise between the abolitionists and the slaveholders.
Pottawatomie Massacre
Sack of Lawrence
Pottawatomie massacre: When John Brown and followers murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers in Kansas then mutilated their bodies to scare other slave supporters and to keep slavery supporters from moving into Kansas.

The Sacking of Lawrence occurred on May 21, 1856, when pro-slavery activists attacked and ransacked the town of Lawrence, Kansas, which had been founded by anti-slavery settlers to help ensure that Kansas would become a "free state"
LeCompton Constitutions
New England Immigrant Aid Society
LeCompton Constitution: document which would have ensured the protection of slavery in Kansas. Kansas either had to be only all slave-state, or a free-state.

New England Immigrant Aid Society: a transportation company in Boston, Massachusetts,[2] created to transport immigrants to the Kansas Territory to shift the balance of power so that Kansas would enter the United States as a free state rather than a slave state.[3] Created by Eli Thayer in the wake of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which allowed the population of Kansas Territory to choose whether slavery would be legal, the Company is noted less for its direct impact than for the psychological impact it had on proslavery and antislavery elements.
Beecher's Bibles
Border Ruffians
Beecher's Bibles: New England Abolitionists shipped boxes of Sharps rifles, named "BEECHER'S BIBLES," to anti-slavery forces. The name for the rifles came from a comment by HENRY WARD BEECHER, the anti-slavery preacher who had remarked that a rifle might be a more powerful moral agent on the Kansas plains than a Bible. The lines were now drawn. Each side had passion, and each side had guns.

Border Ruffians:
Preston Brooks
Brooks was a passionate advocate of slavery and states' rights. He is primarily remembered for beating Senator Charles Sumner (Free Soil-Massachusetts). Brooks' act and the polarizing national reaction to are frequently cited as a major factor in the rising tensions leading up to the American Civil War. Preston Brooks beats Charles Sumner with a cane. Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts was an avowed Abolitionist and leader of the Republican Party. After the sack of Lawrence he gave a bitter speech in the Senate called "The Crime Against Kansas." Brooks beat Sumner in Senate chamber.
Crittenden Compromise
The Crittenden Compromise was an unsuccessful proposal introduced by Senator John J. Crittenden in 1860. It aimed to resolve the U.S. secession crisis of 1860-1861 by addressing the grievances that led the slave states of the US to contemplate secession from the United States. The Crittenden amendments to the Constitution were designed to appease the South. The amendments prohibited slavery in territories north of 360 30', but it permitted slavery in the territories south of this line.