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Social Psychology Test 1

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Controlled processing
"explicit" thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious
Automatic processing
"implicit" thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness, roughly corresponds to "intuition."
Heuristics
a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments
Availability heuristic
the more easily we recall something, the more likely it seems.
Representativeness heuristic
the tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling a typical member
Illusory correlations
perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists
Regression to the Average (mean)
the statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one's average
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency for observers to underestimate situation influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others' behavior
Situational attributions
attributing behavior to the environment
Dispositional attributions
attributing behavior to the person's disposition and traits
Behavioral Confirmation
a type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations
Role playing
a set of norms that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave
Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Cognitive Dissonance
Tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognition's
Correlational research
asking whether two or more factors are naturally associated
Experimental research
manipulating some factor to see its effect on another
Spotlight effect
the belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they really are
Transparency effect (illusion of transparency)
the illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others
Self-Serving Bias
the tendency to perceive oneself favorably
Individualism
the concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attribute rather than group identifications
Collectivism
giving priority to the goals of one's groups and defining one's identity accordingly
Self-Esteem
a person's overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth
Self-Efficacy
a sense that one is competent and effective.
Narcissism
inflated sense of self, most aggressive. Have high self-esteem, but they are missing the piece about caring for others
Locus of Control
the extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces
Learned Helplessness
the sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events.
Belief perseverance
persistence of one's initial conceptions, as when the basis for one's belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives