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The Black Death
Terms in this set (38)
When did the Black Death arrive in Europe and when did it end?
It arrived in 1347-1348 and it left Europe in 1352 December
Where did the Black Death originate?
China/ Central Asia
What year did it originate?
1334 Hubei, China - First recorded outbreak
What was the Black Death?
The Black Death was one of the most devastating diseases. It reduced the worlds population from 450 to 350 million (50% of Europe's population)
Endemic or Pandemic
Both, the disease was endemic in many parts of the world and it was pandemic in different times in history.
A world wide spread of a new disease
A rapid spread of a disease over a short amount of time
The greatest catastrophe, great pestilence, great plague, great mortality, Morte bleue, pestis atra,
Bubonic, pneumonic, septicaemic
-buboes (swollen lymph nodes)
- flu-like symptoms
- bloody or watery sputum
- severe coughing
Bleeding into the skin-black blotches
Flue like symptoms
Organ failure. Shock. Death of Tissue
Chicken ribbing wounds/ chicken eating bubo
2. Unbalanced humours
3. The planets
4. Bad digestion ,weakness and blockage
1. Evil spirits
2. Gods punishment
3. Plague maiden
What were the four humours?
black bile, yellow bile, phlegm and blood
Who were the Flagellants?
They were a religious group who believed that the Plague was a punishment front God. They self-mutilated themselves with whips in public displays to show God their willingness to be punished for their sins.
How did the Flagellans spread the plague?
They carried rats and fleas with them on their journeys and most of them had the plague because they easily caught it from them exposing themselves to the disease from their self-mutilation.
Did the Church approve of the Flagellants?
No the Church did not approve of the flagellants and the Pope declared them heretics because of their greed and heresy. He denounced the movement in 1349 and they disappeared soon after.
The flea and rat in the spread
The flea got the bacterium yersinia pestis from the air and then went on the black rats. Due to bad living conditions, people were easily exposed to the black rats which transmitted the disease onto them. Then people spread the disease to one another due to the bad living conditions and sanitation
Living condition factors. 1.)
1. Overcrowding: there was a recent population growth just before the Black Death emerged so that lead to people often sleeping in the same room and often with their livestock, it also made it impossible to isolate sick member from the healthy ones
Living condition 2
Contaminated water supply due to the poor and impossible removal of waste and rubbish, so it often ended in the water which many drank from.
Living condition 3
Houses were very close to each other so the transmutation was easier.
Living condition 4
Poor hygiene and sanitation lead to the catching of many gastric disease which weakened the people's immune systems making it impossible to fight of serious diseases like the plague
Living condition 5
Houses were very small leaving very small space for people and due to over crowding the disease would easily spread from house to house.
Church prevented advances in medieval knowledge, how and why?
The Church had a huge influence over medical knowledge and treatments. They based all the knowledge off ancient theories that were incorrect and refused to accept evidence against it. Also they prevented human dissections so it was impossible for doctors to find out the problems. Medical knowledge was based of superstition. They did that because they believed that God would save them from the Plague and that He wouldn't if the doctors searched for real answers
Trade helping the spread
There was a growth of trade during the Middle Ages and one example was the Silk Road. Many rats with fleas were on the ships and contaminated the products as well as spread the disease on most of the crew members m. When the products were traded, more and more people in different places got infected and those places involved in trading were soon majorly infected with the Plague.
The peasant revolt
30 May 1381
Outbreak of the plague in europe
It reached Sicily in 1347, the infection reached Genoa and Venice in 1348 but the entry point for the disease was the outbreak in Pisa which infected Italy, then the disease spread to Europe.
Outbreak of the plague in Asia
The first outbreak of the Black Death was reported in China in 1334.
The Siege of Caffa
The arrival of the Black Death in Venice and Genoa
The Black Death left Europe
The king of England introduced new laws about peasant wages
Life improvements for peasants
1. Wealthy landowners offered increased payments for jobs as there weren't many peasant left.
2. Prices fell for many foods because of the lack of customers.
3. Farm workers were replaced with livestock keeping, which was way easier for peasants.
Changes in social class structure
Peasants had better wages meaning they had more money to spend on goods that used to be available to only wealthy people. Also there was a rise in people becoming merchants and shopkeepers because of the increase in demand.
Changes in Skilled trades
Many craftsmen could not depend on their family connections for apprentices to train so many peasants got to access to a trade and status that came with the wealth they had
Changes in the growth of the middle class
There was an increase of people involved in business and trades so that brought the growth of the middle class. This was due to the uprising of the peasants wealth.
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